Activated Charcoal
(Actidose, Sorbitol)

Class: Absorbent
Actions: Prepared charcoal that has a
surface that will bind toxins, not allowing
for absorption.
Indications: Poisoning after emesis or
Seminole Community College
when emesis is contraindicated.
Paramedic Program
Dosage: 20 – 30 gm in 240 ml water in a
surry solution, either orally or through a
nasogastric tube.

Activated Charcoal
(Actidose, Sorbitol)
(Proventil, Ventolin)
Precautions: Do not use with Ipecac,
Class: Bronchodilator (Synthetic
altered level of consciousness.
Sympathomimetic with less cardiac effect
than Epinephrine). Duration 4 hours.

Contraindications: should not be used for
Actions: Causes bronchodilation, with
cyanide, mineral acids, caustic alkalis,
reduced effect on heart rate and cardiac
organic solvents, iron, ethanol, and
output. Inhibits histamine release thereby
reducing mucus production.
Adverse effects: Vomiting following rapid
Indications: Acute Bronchial asthma,
COPD with bronchospasm, CHF,
Pulmonary edema, Allergic reactions.

(Proventil, Ventolin)
Dosage: Adult 2.5 mg/3.0 ml updraft.
Class: Bronchodilator
Child dose: 0.15 mg/kg in 3.0 ml.
Actions: Prolongs the effects of beta agonists by
blocking the enzyme that degrades them.
Precautions: ECG changes, hypotension,
Prolongs bronchodilation and a decrease in
if PSVT occurs a larger dose of
mucus production. Causes increased heart rate
Adenosine may be necessary.
and cardiac output.
Indications: Bronchial asthma, COPD with
Side effects: Tremors, anxiety, seizures.
bronchospasm, CHF, Pulmonary edema.
Class: Nitrate Vasodilator
Dosage: 250 – 500 mg over 20 – 30
Actions: Causes coronary vasodilation,
minutes. Pediatrics 6 mg/Kg over 20 – 30
Removes cyanide-ion via a complex
minutes max 12mg/kg/24 hrs.
Precautions: ECG changes, hypotension.
Indication: Cyanide Poisoning
Dosage: 0.3 ml ampule, inhalant should be
Contraindicated: hypersensitivity to
broken and inhaled, repeat until at ED.
methylxanthines or uncontrolled
Pediatric: Same as for an adult. Inhalant
should be broken & inhaled, repeat until at ED.
Contraindications: none in emergency setting!
(Acetylsalicyclic Acid: ASA)
Class: Thrombolytic
Class: Thrombolytic
Actions: Dissolves blood clots
Actions: Over the counter analgesic with
thrombolytic properties.
Indications: Acute MI
Indications: Chest Pain suggestive of an Acute
Contraindications: Internal Bleeding, Aortic
Myocardial Infarction.
dissection, Traumatic CPR, Persistent
hypertension, Head trauma or intracranial

Dosage: 160 – 325 mg chewed (Child version)
tumor, Hx of CVA in last 6 months, Pregnancy.
Precautions: Hypersensitivity, active ulcer
disease, may cause gastric distress and GI
bleeding, not recommended for pediatric

ATENOLOL (Tenormin)
Class: Antidysrhythmic, antihypertensive
Actions: beta blocking agent
Indications – no longer indicated for
Indications: Ventricular dysrhythmias,
treatment of ventricular arrhythmias,
due to the decrease in availability and it’s
Dosage: varies with prescription.
documented ineffectiveness.
Contraindicated: bradycardias and heart
Has been removed from all algorhythms.
Class: Potent Loop Diuretic
Class: Synthetic Anagesic
Actions: Central Nervous System Depressant,
Actions: Inhibits reabsorption of sodium
Decreases sensitivity to pain, 2mg Stadol equal to
Slight vasodilation, 40 X greater than
10 mg Morphine
Indications: Moderate to severe pain
Indications: Congestive Heart Failure,
Dosage: IV 1 mg, or 3 – 4 mg IM. 2 mg
Pulmonary Edema
(Naloxone should be available)
Contraindications: Pregnancy, Dehydration
Contraindications: Smaller doses for
Dose: 0.5 – 1.0 mg IM/IV 1-2 minutes.
older adults, temperature/light sensitive.
Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Class: Major Tranquilizer, antipsychotic;
Class: Histamine Antagonist
Mechanism of Action: Inhibits the action
Actions: Blocks dopamine receptors in the brain
of histamine in the allergic reaction.
associated with mood and behavior.
Indications: Acute psychotic episodes,
Reduces gastric acid secretions.
Mild alcohol withdrawal, Intractable
Indications: Allergic Reactions
hiccoughs, Nausea and Vomiting
Contraindications: hypersensitivity
Precautions: May cause extrapyramidal
Dosage: 300 mg, IVPB over 5 – 10
reactions especially in children (use
(Decadron, Hexadrol)
Class: Steroid
Class: Carbohydrate
Actions: Possibly decreases cerebral
Actions: principle form of glucose used by the
edema, Anti-inflammatory, suppresses
body for energy.
immune response
Indications: increase blood sugar levels in
Indications: Cerebral edema, Asthma,
Dose: 25 grams IV. Pediatric: 2 ml/kg of 25%
COPD, Anaphylaxis (after epinephrine
and Benadryl)
Precautions: Wernicke’s encephalopathy, and
Korsakoff’s psychosis. Use 100 mg Thiamine.
Class: Antianxiety agent, Anticonvulsant
Class: Antihypertensive
Actions: Smooth muscle relaxant that reduces
tremors, and the incidence of seizures.
Actions: Decrease in both systolic and
Indications: Seizures, Status Epilepticus,
diastolic BP’s, Direct peripheral arterial
premedication prior to cardioversion, Acute
anxiety states.
Dosage: 5 - 10 mg IV/IM, Pediatric 0.2 – 0.5
Indication: Hypertensive emergencies
mg/kg IV or rectally. Onset 1 – 5 minutes.
Precautions: CNS depressant and it’s related
symptoms. Antidote: Flumazenil (Romazicon)
DIGOXIN (Lanoxin)
Class: Calcium Channel Blocker
Class: Cardiac glycoside
Actions: Slows conduction through the AV
node and causes Vasodilation, decreases rate of
Action: Increases cardiac contractile
ventricular response, Decreases myocardial
force, Increase cardiac output
oxygen demand.
Reduces edema due to congestive heart failure,
Indications: Rapid ventricular response in
Slows AV conduction
atrial fibrillation and flutter
Indications: Congestive heart failure, Rapid
Dosage: 0.25 mg/kg IV over 2 minutes followed
atrial dysrythmias especially atrial fibrillation
by 0.35 mg/kg.
and atrial flutter.
Contraindications: WPW, sick sinus syndrome,
Heart blocks, Hypotension.
Extrapyramidal Reactions
Also known as Dystonic Reactions:
Class: Antihistamine
a response to a drug marked by drooling,
Actions: Inhibits the release of histamine,
uncontrolled movements, changes in muscle
thereby reducing bronchconstriction, and
tone, and abnormal posture.
vasodilation. Primary treatment for urticaria.
May be seen with the administration of certain
Indications: Allergic reaction and
antipsychotic agents such as Haldol, Thorazine,
extrapyridamal effects
or Mellaril. May be also used for mediations
that are used for nausea and vomiting,

Precautions: Hypotension, headache,
Phenergan, Compazine, Reglan.
drowsiness, seizure disorders, asthma.
Benadryl will cause marked improvement or
Dosage: 1 mg/kg up to 50 mg IVP (25-50mg)
total resolution of the problem.
(Romazicon, Mazicon)
Class: Beta Blocker (B1 selective)
Class: Benzodiazepine Antagonist
Action: Decrease AV conduct. heart rate
Action: Reverses the effects of Benzodiazepines
Indications: Symptomatic Supra - ventricular
Indications: To reverse CNS respiratory
Tachycardia, including A-fib and Atrial
Flutter. Has been used in cocaine overdose

Contraindications: Should not be used as a
diagnostic agent like Narcan is used. “Potential
patients with SVT.
for life-threatening withdrawal reactions is not
Contraindications: Sinus bradycardia, heart
worth the benefit.”
blocks, CHF, Cardiogenic shock, Asthma.
Dosage: 0.2 mg IV over 15 seconds wait 45
seconds and repeat as needed maximum dose
Class: Hormone (antihypoglycemic
Dosage: Adult: 1.0 mg IM may repeat
every 5 – 20 minutes.
Action: Causes breakdown of glycogen to
Pediatrics: if over 55 lbs (25 Kg) 1 mg IM
glucose, Inhibits glycogen synthesis,
less than 55 lbs (25 kg) or younger than 6
Elevates blood glucose level, Increases
– 8 years old administer ½ the dose (0.5
contractile force and heart rate. Will
assist patients with food lodged in
Beta Blocker overdose (50 – 150 mcg/kg
IV), Ped 50 – 150 mcg/kg.
Class: Major Tranquilizer/Antipsychotic
Class: Anticoagulant
Actions: Blocks dopamine receptors in
Actions: Inactivates thrombin and
the brain associated with mood and
prevents conversion of fibrinogen to
behavior. Has antiemetic properties.
Indications: Acute psychotic episodes.
Indications: Prophylaxis and Treatment
of Deep Vein Thrombosis, Myocardial
Precautions: May cause extrapyramidal
Infarction, Pulmonary Embolism, Open
reactions especially in children.
Heart Surgery.
Orthostatic hypotension.
Precautions: May cause hemorrhage.
Dosage: 2 – 5 mg IM/IV
Class: Antihistamine
Class: Anticholinergic, parasympatholytic
Actions: Antiemetic, Antihistamine,
chemically related to Atropine.
Antianxiety, Potentiates effects of narcotics and
Actions: Bronchodilation, reduces secretions of
synthetic analgesics.
the respiratory tract, inhibits parasympathetic
Indications: Potentiates effects of narcotics and
synthetic analgesics. Nausea and vomiting
Indications: Bronchial Asthma, reversible
Dosage: 50 – 100 mg Deep IM, Ped dose
bronchospam associated with chronic
1mg/kg for acute anxiety attacks. Nausea and
vomiting Adult 25 – 50 mg deep IM, Peds: 1

bronchitis or emphysema.
mg/kg deep IM.
Precautions: same as other
Class: Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory agent
Action: anti-inflammatory agent, Analgesic
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to
working at the synapse of the peripheral
drug and Atropine.
Ipratropium Bromide .02% (Atrovent)
Indications: Mild to moderate pain
0.5 mg/2.5ml updraft x1 (used only once)
Dosage: IV 30 mg, if older than 65 years 15 mg
IV, IM 30 – 60 mg
Contraindications: Asthma and
hypersensitivity to aspirin.
Class: Tranquilizer
Class: Narcotic
Actions: Anticonvulsant, Sedative. The most
potent benzodiazepine.
Actions: Central Nervous System
Indications: Major motor seizures, Status
depressant, Decreases sensitivity to pain
epilepticus, Premedication before
Indications: Moderate to severe pain
cardioversion, Acute anxiety states.
Dosage: 0.5 – 2.0 mg IV, 2 – 4 mg IM
Dosage: 25-50 mg IV, 50-100 mg IM
Pediatrics: 0.03 – 0.5 mg/kg maximum dose 4
Pediatrics: 1 mg/kg
Antidote: Narcan
Class: Steroid
Class: Sympathomimetic bronchodilator
Mechanism of Action: synthetic adrenal
corticosteroid. Reduces inflammation in
Actions: relaxation of bronchial smooth
the airways.
muscle and to inhibit histamine (mucus).
Indications: Allergic Reactions,
Indications: Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis,
Asthma/COPD, Urticaria, Spinal Cord
Dosage: 0.2-0.3 ml/ 2.5-3.0 ml.
Contraindications: None in anaphylaxis.
Side effects: headache, euphoria,
confusion, vertigo, hypertension, CHF,
nausea, vomiting.

Class: Sympathetic Blocker (Beta 2)
Precautions: Furosemide and Thiazide
Actions: Beta blocker cardiac selective
diuretics may increase potassium loss.
Indications: AMI, Hypertension
Dosage: 125 – 250 mg IV/IM
Pediatric: 1-2 mg/kg/dose
Class: Tranquilizer, benzodiazepine
Class: Synthetic Narcotic Analgesic
Action: Hypnotic, Sedative
Actions: Central Nervous System
Indications: Premedication before
cardioversion, Acute anxiety states, analgesic.
Depressant, Decreases sensitivity to pain
Contraindications: Shock, Narrow angle
Indications: moderate to severe pain
glaucoma, intolerance to benzodiazepines.
Dosage: 5 mg IV or IM repeat 2 mg doses
Antidote: Romazicon
20 mg maximum (Narcan is antidote).
Dosage: 1.0-2.5 mg slow IV
Pediatric: 0.10 – 0.15 mg/kg (rarely used)
Pediatrics: 0.05 – 0.20 mg/kg
NIFEDIPINE (Procardia)
Class: Calcium Channel Blocker
Class: Narcotic Antagonist
Actions: relaxes smooth muscle,
Actions: displaces narcotic molecules
decreases peripheral vascular resistance
from opiate receptors in the brain.
Indications: Severe hypertension, Angina
Indications: reverse the effects of
narcotic analgesics.
Dosage: 10 – 20 mg SL, puncture capsule
Dosage: 0.4 – 2.0 mg IV or IM.
& place under patient’s tongue.
Pediatric: 0.01 mg/kg IV/IM
Class: Antianginal/Potent vasodilator
Indications: Chest Pain associated with Angina
Pectoris and Myocardial Infarction, CHF,
Actions: relaxes smooth muscle,
decreases peripheral vascular resistance,
Dosage:25 mg in 500 ml or 12.5 mg in 250 ml:
reduces preload and afterload, increases
Start at 5-15 mcg/minute via infusion regulator
blood flow through collateral coronary
titrate to effect.
blood vessels.
Precautions: Hypotension, do not administer to
a patient who has taken Viagra within 24 hours
(severe hypotension can result).

Class: Analgesic
Contraindications: Head injuries, Chest
Actions: Weak anesthetic with sedative
injuries, COPD < Pulmonary edema,
and analgesic properties.
Pregnancy under 20 weeks, bowel
obstruction, decompression syndrome,

Indications: Pain control for angina,
and shock regardless of cause.
acute abdominal pain, environmental
cold, extremity injuries, and burns.

Dosage: Self administered 50% Oxygen,
and 50% Nitrous Mixture
Precautions: Nausea and vomiting.
Class: Hormone
Class: Neuromuscular blocking agent
Actions: Causes uterine contraction,
Actions: Skeletal muscle relaxant, Paralyzes
skeletal muscles including respiratory muscles
Causes lactation, Slows Postpartum
Indications: To achieve paralysis to facillitate
endotracheal intubation
Indications: Postpartum vaginal bleeding
Precautions: Paralysis occurs in 3-5 minutes
and lasts 60 minutes
Dosage: Adult and Pediatric 0.04 – 0.1 mg/kg
Class: Anticonvulsant
Class: Anticonvulsant/ Antiarrhythmic
Actions: sedative and hypnotic effects.
Actions: Inhibits seizure activity through
Indications: control seizures, status
motor cortex
Indications: Major Seizures, Status
Precautions: sensitivity
Epilepticus, Arrhythmias due to digitalis
Dosage: Adult and Pediatric 100 – 300
mg slow IVP/ IM, Pediatric 6 – 10 mg/kg
Indication: reduce irritation of the eyes
Class: Local Anesthetic
due to chemicals
Actions: Blocks both the initiation and
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to
conduction of nerve impulses by
drug, damage to the globe of the eye.
decreasing the neuronal membrane’s
Side effects/Caution: None
permeability to sodium ions.
Dosage: 1 – 2 gtts per affected eye.
Class: Antihistamine antagonist
Class: Phenothiazine Antiemetic
Actions: Mild Anticholinergic activity
Actions: Antiemetic
Antiemetic, potentiates actions of
Indications: Nausea and Vomiting &
Acute psychosis
Indications: Nausea and Vomiting,
Motion sickness, Sedation
Precautions: Dystonic reactions
Dosage: 12.5-25.0 mg
Pediatrics: 0.5 mg/kg
Indication: Croup
Class: Sympathomimetic: Slightly
Contraindications: Epiglottitis,
different than epinephrine. Stimulated
both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
Side Effects: headache, angina, palpatation,
with a preference to beta 2 receptors.
Actions: Bronchodilation-decrease mucus
Caution in patients using antihistamines or
tricylic antidepressants (adverse cardiac
secretion, and reduces subglottic edema.
Increases heart rate, contractile force
Dosage: Adult and Pediatric - 0.25-0.75 ml of
2.25 solution/nebulizer updraft.
Class: Emetic
Actions: Induces vomiting (in brain)
Class: Potent vasodilator
Indications: Poisoning and overdose
Actions: Peripheral vasodilator
Contraindications: Reduced level of
Indications: Hypertensive emergencies
consciousness, caustic substances,
Dosage: 0.5 mcg/kg/min
petroleum ingestion, antiemtic ingestion.
Precaution: Hypotension.
Dosage: 30 ml with at least 8 oz of water
(Calan - Isoptin, Cardizem)
Class: Vitamin
Mechanism of Action - Both are calcium
Actions: converts glucose into energy,
channel blocking agents that slow
must be provided.
conduction and increase refractoriness in
Indications: Altered level of
the AV node. These actions terminate
consciousness, coma of unknown origin,
reentrant arrhythmias that require AV
chronic alcoholism with associated coma.
nodal conduction.
Dosage: 100 mg IVP
(Calan - Isoptin, Cardizem)
(Calan - Isoptin, Cardizem)
Indications - Used in the treatment of
Verapamil is a negative inotropic agent
Paroxysmal Supraventricular
that causes a reduction in myocardial
Tachycardia (PSVT) narrow complex
oxygen requirement. May also control
and ventricular rate control in Atrial
ventricular response in A-Fib, A-Flutter,
Fibrillation. However, Adenosine is the
or multifocal Atrial Tachycardia.
drug of choice.
(Calan - Isoptin, Cardizem)
(Calan - Isoptin, Cardizem)
Precautions - Possible hemodynamic
Verapamil: 2.5 - 5.0 mg IV over 2
compromise. Should not be used in WPW
minutes. Repeat doses of 5 - 10 mg every
syndrome or impaired heart function.
15 to 30 minutes to a maximum of 30 mg.
Calcium is used for possible overdose of
Diltiazem: 0.25 mg/kg over 2 minutes
Verapamil or other Calcium channel
followed by 0.35 mg/kg. Produces less
myocardial depression than Verapamil.
This Microsoft PowerPoint presentation
was prepared by Rob Holborn Ed.D, EMT-
P, Seminole Community College.

The presentation was prepared by using the
textbook: Guidelines 2000 for
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and
Emergency Cardiovascular Care:
International Consensus on Science and the
1998 National EMT-Paramedic Curriculum


Microsoft word - water is the petroleum for the next century says goldman sachs.doc

Water is the petroleum for the next century says Goldman Sachs Water crisis to be biggest world risk Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Telegraph, 06/06/2008 A catastrophic water shortage could prove an even bigger threat to mankind this century than soaring food prices and the relentless exhaustion of energy reserves, according to a panel of global experts at the Goldman Sachs "

Microsoft word - document

MOLECULAR FUNCTION & IMAGING SYMPOSIUM: SATURDAY MAY 23RD 2009 7:00-7:30 Registration & Breakfast Grand Scheme Foyer & Delivered Ballroom 7:15-7:30 Welcoming Remarks Dr Rob Beanlands ICRH / MFI TRANSLATIONAL WORKSHOPS I 7:30-8:30 Session A Dr Erik Suuronen Stem Cell and Regenerative Therapies: How to Make the Leap from Lab Bench to

Copyright © 2012-2014 Medical Theses