^ Akwa Tears® [OTC] see Artificial Tears on page 148
^ ALA see Aminolevulinic Acid on page 93
^ 5-ALA see Aminolevulinic Acid on page 93
^ Ala-Cort see Hydrocortisone (Topical) on page 886
^ Alamag [OTC] see Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide on page 81
^ Alamag Plus [OTC] see Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide, and Simethicone
^ Ala-Scalp see Hydrocortisone (Topical) on page 886
^ Alavert® Allergy 24 Hour [OTC] see Loratadine on page 1087
^ Alavert® Children's Allergy [OTC] see Loratadine on page 1087
^ Alaway™ [OTC] see Ketotifen on page 1013 Albuterol (al BYOO ter ole) Related Information Medication Safety Issues Sound-alike/look-alike issues:
Albuterol may be confused with Albutein®, atenololProventil® may be confused with Bentyl®, PriLOSEC®, Prinivil®Salbutamol may be confused with salmeterolVentolin® may be confused with phentolamine, Benylin®, Vantin
Brand Names: U.S. AccuNeb®; ProAir® HFA; Proventil® HFA; Ventolin® HFA; VoSpire ER® Brand Names: Canada Airomir; Apo-Salvent®; Apo-Salvent® AEM; Apo-Salvent® CFC
Free; Apo-Salvent® Sterules; Dom-Salbutamol; Med-Salbutamol; Mylan-Salbutamol Respi-rator Solution; Mylan-Salbutamol Sterinebs P.F.; Novo-Salbutamol HFA; Nu-Salbutamol; PHL-Salbutamol; PMS-Salbutamol; ratio-Ipra-Sal; ratio-Salbutamol; Sandoz-Salbutamol; Vento-lin®; Ventolin® Diskus; Ventolin® HFA; Ventolin® I.V. Infusion; Ventolin® Nebules P.F. Index Terms Albuterol Sulfate; Salbutamol; Salbutamol Sulphate Generic Availability (U.S.) Yes Pharmacologic Category Beta2-Adrenergic Agonist Use Treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients with reversible obstructive airway
disease; prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm
Contraindications Hypersensitivity to albuterol, adrenergic amines, or any component of the
Injection formulation (not available in U.S.): Patients with tachyarrhythmias
Warnings/Precautions Optimize anti-inflammatory treatment before initiating maintenance
treatment with albuterol. Do not use as a component of chronic therapy without an anti-inflammatory agent. Only the mildest forms of asthma (Step 1 and/or exercise-induced) wouldnot require concurrent use based upon asthma guidelines. Patient must be instructed to seekmedical attention in cases where acute symptoms are not relieved or a previous level ofresponse is diminished. The need to increase frequency of use may indicate deterioration ofasthma, and treatment must not be delayed.
Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease (arrhythmia or hypertension or HF),convulsive disorders, diabetes, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, or hypokalemia. Beta-agonistsmay cause elevation in blood pressure, heart rate, and result in CNS stimulation/excitation. Beta2-agonists may increase risk of arrhythmia, increase serum glucose, or decrease serumpotassium.
Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm) have beenreported. Do not exceed recommended dose; serious adverse events, including fatalities,have been associated with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetics. Rarely, paradoxicalbronchospasm may occur with use of inhaled bronchodilating agents; this should bedistinguished from inadequate response. All patients should utilize a spacer device or valvedholding chamber when using a metered-dose inhaler.
Patient response may vary between inhalers that contain chlorofluorocarbons and thosewhich are chlorofluorocarbon-free. Adverse Reactions (Reflective of adult population; not specific for elderly) Inci-
dence of adverse effects is dependent upon age of patient, dose, and route of administration.
Cardiovascular: Angina, atrial fibrillation, arrhythmias, chest discomfort, chest pain, extra-
systoles, flushing, hyper-/hypotension, palpitation, supraventricular tachycardia, tachycardia
Central nervous system: CNS stimulation, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia,
irritability, lightheadedness, migraine, nervousness, nightmares, restlessness, seizure
Dermatologic: Angioedema, rash, urticariaEndocrine & metabolic: Hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, lactic acidosis
Female and male brains (an outline) by Serge Ginger Introduction Now, I introduce myself: I’M Secretary general of the French Umbrella for Psychotherapy (FFdP) and Registrar of theEAP;I’ve worked, during some years, as UNESCO expert in the field of Special Education;I’m a Gestalt Therapist and President of the International Federation of Gestalt TrainingOrganizations (FO