ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVENESS AND ECOLOGICAL IMPACT An documented account of 812 non-native species reported to grow outside of cultivation in Texas has been developed. About 300 of these have been reported since the 1970 publication of the Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas, and each of the latter taxa has been documented by at least a literature reference. A “Fundamental Invasiveness Index” provides a framework for assessment and ranking of each of the non-native species according to their invasiveness and ecological impact. The Index is based on knowledge of the species from field, herbarium, and literature, according to the following criteria.
F1: Invasive in both disturbed and natural habitats, negatively affecting native species or natural biodiversity by altering native
vegetation and habitats or by outcompeting or hybridizing with native species; or, invasive into agricultural habitats and causing signifi-cant economic damage; including woody, herbaceous, and aquatic species.
F2: Abundant in number and widespread, commonly invasive in disturbed habitats, much less commonly in natural habitats;
subdivided into woody, herbaceous, and aquatic species.
F3: Relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats; subdivided into woody and
F4: Status unknown.
Numbers of species per category are F1-Woody, Herbaceous, and aquatic (51), F2-Woody (13), F2-Herbaceous (228), F2-
aquatic (16), F3-Woody (76), F3-Herbaceous (348), and F4 (80). A Watch List includes 52 woody, herbaceous, and aquatic species
most likely to warrant F1 ranking.
Se realiza un informe documentado de 812 especies no nativas que crecen fuera de cultivo en Texas. Unas 300 de ellas se han citado desde la publicación en 1970 del Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas, y cada uno de estos últimos taxa se ha documentado con al menos una referencia bibliográfica. Un “Fundamental Invasiveness Index” ofrece un marco para la evaluación y ordenación de cada una de las especies no nativas de acuerdo a su potencial invasor e impacto ecológico. El índice está basado en el conocimiento de las especies en el campo, herbario, y bibliografía, de acuerdo a los siguientes criterios.
F1: Invasiva tanto en hábitats modificados y naturales, que afecta negativamente a especies nativas o a la biodiversidad natural por
alterar la vegetación nativa y hábitats o por competir o hibridar con especies nativas; o, invasoras en hábitats agrícolas causando daños económicos importantes; incluyendo especies leñosas, herbáceas, y acuáticas.
F2: Abundantes en número y extendidas, generalmente invasivas en hábitats alterados, mucho menos en hábitats naturales; sub-
divididas en especies leñosas, herbáceas, y acuáticas.
F3: Relativamente pocas en número, conocidas de relativamente pocas localidades, usualmente en hábitats alterados; subdivididas
F4: Estatus desconocido.
Los números de especies por categoría son F1-leñosas, herbáceas, y acuáticas (51), F2-leñosas (13), F2-herbáceas (228),
F2-acuáticas (16), F3-leñosas (76), F3-herbáceas (348), y F4 (80). Una lista visual incluye 52 especies leñosas, herbáceas, y acuáticas
que probablemente justifican una situación en F1.
About 516 non-native species were known 40 years ago to occur outside of cultivation in Texas (as counted from Correll & Johnston 1970)—about 11 percent of the total flora of the state at that time. Since that time, about 300 additional introductions to the state have been reported in various publications (summarized in the PLANTS Database: USDA, NRCS 2009; the PLANTS Database has drawn its information from a variety of sources, including major publications on the Texas flora). The present paper provides a summary account of the currently known non-native Texas flora, with documentation for those species included in J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3(2): 971 – 991. 2009
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
the account since 1970 and a ranking of invasiveness and ecological impact for each species included. The system presented here is simple enough to allow a quick assessment of a large number of species but still to provide a fundamental overview of each species.
Various lists of invasive species have been developed for Texas, but documentation for these lists is not readily available. The most comprehensive list is presented by TexasInvasives.org (2009), which includes 139 species, with a photo for each and a listing of the family, common name, duration, habit, and information on morphology, biology, and distribution, including links to detailed Texas maps. Two lists have state-wide legal standing: the Noxious Plant List of the Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA 2009) with 29 species and a list of Prohibited Exotic Species from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD 2009) with 19 aquatic species. The list of 13 aquatic species from the North Texas Water Garden Society (NTWGS 2009) appears to be a subset of the TDA list. The City of Austin lists 26 species (some listed simply as the genus) of Invasive Plants to Avoid (Austin City Connection 2009).
The Invaders of Texas (2009) program organizes teams of local citizen scientists who seek out and report occurrences of invasive species. This is a very useful program, both practically and scientifically—as of May 2009, more than 7400 detailed field observations have been reported and are available online. Each field report includes precise locality information (with coordinates automatically mapped), an indication of abundance at the locality, and usually a photo of the plant or populations taken at the site of observation. The target species sought by the Invaders of Texas participants are the 139 on the TexasInvasives.org list (2009). For each species, individual field observations are mapped in aggregate to show their total distribu-tion in the state.
non-native species in texas—development of a list and documentation.
A preliminary list of non-native species in Texas was developed by the author from the PLANTS Database
(USDA, NRCS 2009), using an Advanced Search for Texas taxa introduced to the Lower 48 states. Journals
and other literature were reviewed for possible additions, and a number of species have been excluded.
Identifications in the Texas list presented here often are not made to infraspecific rank (in contrast to the
PLANTS list), because vouchers commonly have not been examined or because the validity of the infraspe-
cific taxonomy is not clear. Only plants that are naturalized have been included (vs. cultivated or persisting
from cultivation), though some on the list probably would best be characterized as waifs (Nesom 2000) if
follow-up observations were done at sites where they were reported to occur. Whether or not a species is
native sometimes may be difficult to judge—generally such instances are discussed in the documentation
for the full list (Nesom 2009a).
Documentation for the occurrence of these species in Texas (Nesom 2009a) begins with literature and other records that have been published mostly after 1970, the date of publication of Correll and Johnston’s “Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas,” which remains the primary floristic resource for the state. In the course of assigning invasiveness rankings, however, the rationale for inclusion of each species on the full list has been examined. For species included in the documentation, at least one full literature reference is provided, with reported Texas counties and other brief notes on the status of the species, as appropriate or as known. Many taxa on the PLANTS list or from elsewhere have been excluded from the Texas flora because of mistaken or faulty documentation (Nesom 2009b for examples from the Asteraceae), and these are specifically noted in the commentaries (Nesom 2009a). A number of species have been reported simply by listing (Johnston 1990; Hatch et al. 1990) or by mapping (Turner et al. 2003); vouchers or other docu-mentation for these are being provided.
Documentation for the full list of non-native taxa is an essential and critical part of both this process and this report. Because the information is complex and completion and supplementation are ongoing, it remains as an online resource (Nesom 2009a). Addition of voucher information and other documentation for species first reported in lists by Johnston (1990) and Hatch et al. (1990) and elsewhere will be a significant advance.
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
systems for assessment and ranking of invasiveness.
In developing a protocol for evaluating Texas non-native species for invasiveness and ecological impact, a
representative set of other systems toward the same end has been considered and studied.
* Alien Plants Ranking System (Ver. 5.1) (APRS Implementation Team 2000)
* Ranking Invasive Exotic Plant Species in Virginia (Heffernan et al. 2001)
* Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands (Warner et al. 2003)
* An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-native Plants for Their Impact on Biodi-
* Invasiveness Ranking System for Non-native Plants of Alaska (Carlson et al. 2008)
* New York State Plant Ranking System for Evaluating Non-Native Plant Species for Invasiveness
Perhaps the most widely applied (and adapted) of these is Morse et al. (2004), developed by NatureServe, in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy and the U.S. National Park Service. It is a “protocol for as-sessing and categorizing non-native plants according to their impacts on native biodiversity.” NatureServe Explorer now includes an impact rank (“I-rank”—high, medium, low, or insignificant) for many non-native plant species of the USA.
In each of the systems above, assessment and ranking of an individual species invokes a series of detailed questions grouped into a set of topics, usually including some or all of these: * ecological impact and potential for future impact;
* biological attributes, including dispersal ability and invasiveness potential;
* ecological amplitude;
* geographic extent of invasion; and
* control/management feasibility and cost.
A significant amount of the information required for the ranking criteria is drawn from literature pertinent to the species under consideration. After scoring is complete for the whole set of questions, the species may be ranked numerically by its additive score, or the additive score may translate to a broader category.
The ranking protocol for the Tennessee Invasive Exotic Plant List (Tennessee EPPC 2001) is consider- ably different from those above. In the Tennessee system, a species is assigned by a committee of biologists
to one of the following categories (the number of Tennessee species in each category is indicated):
rank 1—severe threat: Exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily
into native plant communities and displace native vegetation. (29 species) rank 2—significant threat: Exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species but are not
presently considered to spread as easily into native plant communities as those species listed as Rank 1. (49 species) rank 3—lesser threat: Exotic plant species that spread in or near disturbed areas; and are not presently
considered a threat to native plant communities. (28 species) Watch list a—Exotic plants that naturalize and may become a problem in the future; includes species that
are or could become widespread in Tennessee. At this time more information is needed, and there is no consensus about their status. (24 species) Watch list B—Exotic plant species that are severe problems in surrounding states but have not been reported
The protocol proposed here for Texas non-native species is very similar to the one developed for Tennessee.
Invasiveness and ecological impact of texas non-native species.
The system outlined here for use in Texas emphasizes simplicity, allowing assessment of the large number
of non-native species (all that are known to occur in the state). Because essential elements of biology and
geography are included in the assessments, the system is termed the Fundamental Invasiveness Index. After
becoming familiar with the categories of the index and the characteristics of the species under consideration,
the species is assigned to one of the categories. The first category (F1) applies to species that have invasive
biological characteristics as well as a strong and adverse impact on natural systems and biodiversity (or an
adverse economic impact). The other two main categories (F2, F3) include species that are less significant
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
in ecological or economic impact, with the division between species of F2 and F3 made on the basis of their geographic distribution, abundance, and potential for spread. Within F2 and within F3, slightly dif-ferent characterizations are given for woody and herbaceous species, as the two growth forms are generally distinct in biology.
The biology of aquatic species is distinct from terrestrial ones, in part because of their potential for extremely rapid dispersal in local aquatic systems. Emergents that grow in open water—sometimes per-sisting in mud flats or in periodically wet habitats (i.e., Alternanthera, Ludwigia, Nasturtium)—are included as aquatics. Each species has the potential to cause major ecosystem damage, and many of them already are recognized as noxious over wide regions; others are ecologically damaging at least locally in the lake or stream where they occur. Somewhat arbitrarily, aquatic species are recognized here in the category of maxinum negative effect if they occur in 10 or more counties (as recorded by herbarium voucher specimens, expert sightings or photos, or other reliable documentation). Hydrilla verticillata is vouchered by specimens at TEX for only about six Texas counties but clearly occurs more widely (as do some of the other species). Otherwise, aquatic species known to occur in 9 or fewer counties all are placed in the same category.
A ranking system such as that from NatureServe provides assessments based on array of explicit and detailed criteria. For Texas and its large number of non-native species, contemplation of such an intricate system and the massive amount of time required for its completion perhaps has inhibited even the begin-ning of one. The system here, however, appears to provide a realistic overview of the situation in Texas, even though many assessments remain to be clarified for species currently included. Further, the current account at least provides a basis from which more detailed assessments may be developed.
For accurate evaluation of an individual species, knowledge is required of the following.
* nativity. Is the species native or non-native?
* approximate date of introduction in texas (e.g., pre-1970, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s). Documentation
in the current system does not provide specific information for species introduced before 1970 (those in-
cluded in Correll & Johnston’s Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas), but for species recorded since that
time, dates are evident, as much as possible, in a review posted and periodically updated on the internet
(Nesom 2009a).
* Current geographic distribution. Based on distribution maps in Turner et al. (2003), distribution
maps generated by data from Invaders of Texas (2009), records from herbaria (primarily those in Texas),
and literature.
* Ecological/reproductive behavior in texas and in other regions. Based on field experience of the
author and others, published literature, information from herbarium collections.
* Basic habitat and growth form (aquatic or terrestrial, herbaceous or woody). Based on field experi-
ence, published literature, information from herbarium collections.
F1Invasive in both disturbed and natural habitats. Negatively affecting native species or natural biodiversity
by altering native vegetation and habitats or by outcompeting or hybridizing with native species; or, invasive
into agricultural habitats and causing significant economic damage. Aquatic species known to occur in 10 or
more counties. Woody, herbaceous, and aquatic species. Examples: Arundo donax, Bothriochloa ischaemum var.
songarica, Centaurea melitensis, Eichhornia crassipes, Ligustrum sinense, Lonicera japonica, Lygodium japonicum,
Nandina domestica, Salvinia molesta, Sorghum halepense, Triadica (Sapium) sebifera, Ulmus pumila.

F2—Abundant in number and widespread, commonly invasive in disturbed habitats, much less commonly
in natural habitats (Table 1).
F2-Woody—Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines. Abundant in number and widespread, commonly invasive in disturbed habitats
such as roadsides, fencerows, woods edges, and others, sometimes potentially or incipiently damaging in natural habitats (as F1). Examples: Albizia julibrissin, Morus alba, Nicotiana glauca, Poncirus trifoliata, Pyrus calleryana, Vitex agnus-castus.
F2-Herbaceous—Annual and perennial herbs and grasses. Known invasive and/or clearly expanding in geographic range, primarily in
lawns, roadsides, and other open, disturbed habitats, sometimes in croplands, widespread and usually abundant but often produc- Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Table 1. Numbers of non-native species in Texas ranked as F1, F2, F3, and F4. The total is 812 species.
ing relatively little biomass. Not significantly affecting native species or natural biodiversity or otherwise strongly altering native vegetation and habitats. Examples: Avena sativa, Bellardia trixago, Coronilla varia, Daucus carota, Duchesnia indica, Erodium cicutarium, Galium aparine, Gamochaeta coarctata, Hypochaeris microcephala, Lamium amplexicaule, Medicago lupulina, Stachys floridana, Stellaria media, Taraxacum officinale, Torilis nodosa, Trifolium repens, Veronica arvensis, Vicia sativa. F2-aquatic—Aquatic species known to occur in 1 to 9 counties.
F3—Relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats.
F3-Woody—Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines. Relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed
habitats, repeatedly introduced or perhaps merely long-persisting at some localities, not showing aggresively invasive tendencies, or perhaps incipiently invasive. Examples: Ardisia crenata, Buddleja lindleyana, Cinnamomum camphora, Hibiscus syriacus, Koelreuteria elegans, Manihot esculenta, Photinia serratifolia, Pistacia chinensis, Pyracantha koidzumii, Pyrus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis. F3-Herbaceous—Annual and perennial herbs and grasses. Occurrence outside of cultivation known from only one or a few populations,
usually in disturbed habitats. Apparently showing little or no increase of abundance or geographic range since the initial report. Examples: Cichorium intybus, Gomphrena globosa, Phyllanthus fraternus, Plantago coronopus. Or in some species, sporadically appearing from repeated introductions and not reproducing. Examples: Citrullus lanatus, Consolida orientalis, Ipomoea batatas, Luffa aegyptiaca, Narcis-sus pseudonarcissus, Tagetes erecta. F4—Status unknown.
Watch list: terrestrial non-native species in texas potentially ranked as F1.
Many of the non-native species in Texas occur only in small areas. Among these are a significant number
that have been relatively recently recorded for the state and that are known to be both highly invasive and
ecologically destructive in other regions of the United States. These features characterize the species included
on the Texas “Watch List” (Appendix 5). These species may be expected to spread in Texas and become
ecologically problematic. Some of the woody species, like Cinnamomum camphora, Photinia serratifolia, Pista-
cia chinensis
, and Vitex agnus-castus are widely planted and seeds often are nearly ubiquitous around urban
areas—each of these species already appears to be spreading into natural habitats. In contrast, species such
as Albizia julibrissin and Morus alba are invasive and occur in large numbers but appear to be more restricted
to disturbed habitats or to edges of woods.
An interesting point regarding pantropical maritime species potentially or incipiently invasive in Texas has been raised by Tom Patterson (South Texas College, Rio Grande City). “How to classify these new arrivals? For the most part, they have not escaped from cultivation. But they potentially are a threat and I believe they need their own category. After tropical storms South Padre Island receives sea beans, red mangrove fruits, and coconuts. Some of these propagules in the past have produced plants and have been infrequently documented by collections, only later to succumb to a severe freeze. With global warming more of these pantropical maritime species will persist and become naturally adventive to Texas.” In this category Patterson includes Caesalpina bonduc, Canavalia rosea, Cassytha filiformis, Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, Rhizophora mangle, and Scaveola plumieri. These are added as a special category in the Watch List (Appendix 5).
roadside flora.
The emphasis here on ecological impact to natural habitats is especially significant in Texas, where such a
relatively small portion of the land is unaltered and it is critical to protect remaining natural areas. Following
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
that thought, however, roadsides in Texas are exceptionally significant since they comprise a significant por-tion of public land in the state and in some places are important in harboring elements of the native flora.
“It’s hard to know what to do with roadsides. They’re not entirely natural, and sometimes the weediness stops at the fence. Don’t you wish you had a time machine and could go back 1000 years (or 100) and see Texas without all of the exotics? I wonder what spring would look like without all the non-native mustards, mints, beans, grasses, etc. What might we have had that is no longer here at all? All that vetch and clover and henbit and shepherd’s purse had to replace *something*” (Monique Reed, pers. comm.).
All non-native species known to occur in Texas, with “Fundamental Invasiveness Index” rankings. Species on the “WATCH List”
(Appendix 4) are indicated.
Cuminum cyminum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders.—F2-Woody
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britt. &
Nomaphila stricta (Vahl) Nees—F2-Woody
Ruellia caerulea Morong—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Apium leptophyllum (Pers.) F. Muell. ex Benth.
Daucus carota L.—F2-Herbaceous
Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims—F3-Herbaceous
Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.—F3-Herbaceous
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.—F3-Herbaceous
Pastinaca sativa L.—F3-Herbaceous
Petroselinum crispum
(P. Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill—F3-
Achyranthes aspera L.—F3-Herbaceous
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth—F2-Herbaceous
Scandix pecten-veneris L.—F3-Herbaceous
Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.—F1-Woody
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Alternanthera pungens Kunth—F3-Herbaceous
Torilis nodosa (L.) Gaertn.—F2-Herbaceous
Alternanthera tenella Colla—F3-Herbaceous

syn= Alternanthera bettzichiana (Regel.) Standl.
Amaranthus blitum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don—F3-Woody
syn= Amaranthus viridus auct. non L.
Amaranthus cruentus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Nerium oleander L.—F3-Woody
Vinca major L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Amaranthus hybridus var. cruentus (L.) Moq.
Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Vinca minor L.—F4-Herbaceous
Amaranthus sessilis (L.) DC.—F4-Herbaceous
Celosia argentea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott—F1-Woody
Gomphrena globosa L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cryptocoryne beckettii Thwaites ex Trimen—F2-Woody
Amaryllis belladonna L.—F3-Herbaceous
Pistia stratiodes L.—F1-Woody
Habranthus tubispathus (L’Her.) Traub—F3-Herbaceous
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott—F2-Woody
syn= Habranthus texanus (-Herbaceousert) Steud.
Narcissus jonquilla L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hedera helix L.—F2-Herbaceous
Narcissus pseudonarcissus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Narcissus tazetta L.—F3-Herbaceous
Asclepias curassavica L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb. ex R. Br.) R. Br.—F3-
Pistacia chinensis Bunge—F3-Woody WATCH
Herbaceous WATCH
Schinus longifolius (Lindl.) Speg.—F3-Woody
Periploca graeca L.—F3-Herbaceous
Schinus molle L.—F3-Woody WATCH
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi—F3-Woody WATCH
Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze—F4-Herbaceous
Acroptilon repens (L.) DC.—F4-Herbaceous
Ammi majus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam.—F3-Herbaceous
Anthemis cotula L.—F2-Herbaceous
Anethum graveolens L.—F3-Herbaceous
Bidens pilosa L.—F3-Herbaceous
Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem.—F3-Herbaceous
Bupleurum rotundifolium L.—F2-Herbaceous
Carduus acanthoides L.—F3-Herbaceous
Conium maculatum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Carduus nutans subsp. macrocephalus (Desf.) Nyman—F1-
Coriandrum sativum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Carduus nutans var. macrocephalus (Desf.) Boivin Solivia anthemiifolia (Juss.)—F2-Herbaceous
Carduus pycnocephalus L.—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Carthamus lanatus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pavón—F2-Herbaceous
Carthamus tinctorius L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Soliva pterosperma (Juss.) Less.
Centaurea cyanus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Soliva stolonifera (Brot.) Sweet—F2-Herbaceous
Centaurea melitensis L.—F1-Herbaceous
syn= Gymnostyles stolonifera (Brot.) Tutin— Centaurea solstitialis L.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Gymnostyles nasturtiifolia Juss.
Cichorium intybus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill—F2-Herbaceous
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Sonchus oleraceus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski—F3-Herbaceous
Cnicus benedictus L.—F4-Herbaceous
Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.) Nesom—F4-
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.—F2-Herbaceous
syn = Aster subulatus var. sandwicensis A. Gray Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.—F3-Herbaceous
Tagetes erecta L.—F4-Herbaceous
Cosmos sulphureus Cav.—F3-Herbaceous
Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) DC.—F2-Herbaceous
Cotula australis (Sieber) Hook. f.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. ex Bess.
Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr.—F4-Herbaceous
Taraxacum officinale L. subsp. officinaleF2-Herbaceous
Crepis pulchra L.—F3-Herbaceous
Tragopogon dubius Scop.—F2-Herbaceous
Crepis setosa Haller f.—F4-Herbaceous
Tragopogon porrifolius L.—F2-Herbaceous
Crepis zacintha (L.) Babcock—F4-Herbaceous
Tridax procumbens L.—F3-Herbaceous
Emilia fosbergii D.H. Nicols.—F4-Herbaceous
Xanthium spinosum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Facelis retusa (Lam.) Schultz-Bip.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Xanthium spinosum var. inerme Bel.
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.—F2-Herbaceous
Youngia japonica (L.) DC.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Galinsoga parviflora var. semicalva Gray Zinnia violacea Cav.—F3-Herbaceous
Gamochaeta antillana (Urb.) Anderb.—F2-Herbaceous
Gamochaeta calviceps (Fern.) Cabrera—F2-Herbaceous
Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis—F3-Herbaceous
Gamochaeta coarctata (Willd.) Kerg.—F2-Herbaceous
Gamochaeta pensylvanica ( Willd.) Cabrera—F2-
Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.-Cours.—F2-Herbaceous
Nandina domestica Thunb.—F1-Woody
Hypochaeris brasiliensis var. tweediei (Hook. & Arn.)
Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry—F3-Woody
syn= Hypochaeris tweediei Hook. & Arn.
Hypochaeris glabra L.—F2-Herbaceous
Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.—F3-
Hypochaeris microcephala var. albiflora (Kuntze) Cabre-
Hypochaeris radicata L.—F2-Herbaceous
Lactuca saligna L.—F3-Herbaceous
Anchusa azurea P. Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Lactuca serriola L.—F2-Herbaceous
Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston—F2-Herbaceous
Lapsana communis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Leontodon hispidus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl) Thunb. ex Lehm.—F3-
Leontodon taraxacoides (Vill.) Mérat—F4-Herbaceous
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.—F2-Herbaceous
Echium vulgare L.—F3-Herbaceous
Heliotropium amplexicaule Vahl—F2-Herbaceous
Matricaria recutita L. Wild Chamomile—F4-Herbaceous
Heliotropium europaeum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Heliotropium indicum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Matricaria chamomilla var. coronata (J. Gay) Coss. & BRASSICACEAE Mustard Family
Onopordum acanthium L.—F2-Herbaceous
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.—F2-Herbaceous
Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & Burtt—F2-
Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.—F3-Herbaceous
Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch—F3-Herbaceous
Sanvitalia angustifolia A. Gray—F3-Herbaceous
Brassica oleracea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Scorzonera laciniata L.—F2-Herbaceous
Brassica rapa L.—F2-Herbaceous
Senecio vulgaris L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Brassica campestris var. rapa (L.) Hartman Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
syn= Brassica rapa var. campestris (L.) W.D.J. Koch CANNABACEAE
Brassica tournefortii Gouan—F3-Herbaceous
Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa—F3-Woody
Cakile maritima Scop.—F4-Herbaceous
Camelina microcarpa DC.—F2-Herbaceous
Canna ×generalis Bailey [glauca × indica]—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Camelina sativa subsp. microcarpa (DC.) E. Schmid Camelina rumelica Velen.— F3-Herbaceous
Canna indica L.—F3-Herbaceous
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.—F2-Herbaceous
Cardamine debilis D. Don—F2-Herbaceous
Cardamine hirsuta
Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.—F3-Herbaceous
Cleome gynandra L.—F3-Herbaceous
Chorispora tenella (Pallas) DC.—F2-Herbaceous
Conringia orientalis (L.) Dumort.—F2-Herbaceous
Cleome hassleriana Chod.—F4-Herbaceous
Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Cleome pungens auct. non Willd.
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Cleome spinosa auct. non Jacq.
Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC.—F2-Herbaceous
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Lonicera fragrantissima Lind. & Paxton—F3-Woody
Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (P. Mill.) Thellung—F2-
Lonicera japonica Thunb.—F1-Woody
Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder—F3-Woody WATCH
Agrostemma githago L.—F3-Herbaceous
Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz—F2-Herbaceous
Arenaria serpyllifolia L.—F2-Herbaceous
Erysimum repandum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cerastium fontanum Baumg.—F2-Herbaceous
Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Cerastium holosteoides auct. non Fries Lepidium latifolium L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Cerastium holosteoides var. vulgare (Hartman) Hyl.
Lepidium ruderale L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.—F2-Herbaceous
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Cerastium viscosum auct. non L.
Cerastium pumilum W. Curtis—F2-Herbaceous
Matthiola incana (L.) Ait. f.—F3-Herbaceous
Dianthus armeria L.—F3-Herbaceous
Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Dianthus barbatus L.—F4-Herbaceous
Gypsophila elegans M. Bieb—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Matthiola longipetala subsp. bicornis (Sibthorp & Sm.) Holosteum umbellatum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Myagrum perfoliatum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Petrorhagia dubia (Raf.) López & Romo—F2-Herbaceous
Nasturtium officinale W.T. Ait.—F1-Woody
syn= Petrorhagia velutina (Guss.) P.W. Ball & Heywood Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Raphanus rapistrum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Sagina procumbens L.—F4-Herbaceous
Raphanus sativus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Saponaria officinalis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Silene conoidea L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Raphanus raphanistrum var. sativus (L.) G. Beck Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.—F1-Herbaceous
Silene dichotoma Ehrh.—F4-Herbaceous
Sinapis alba L.—F4-Herbaceous
Silene gallica L.—F2-Herbaceous
Sinapis arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Spergula arvensis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Spergularia echinosperma (Celak.) Aschers. & Graebn.—F3-
Sisymbrium altissimum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Sisymbrium irio L.—F2-Herbaceous
Spergularia platensis (Camb.) Fenzl—F3-Herbaceous
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.—F2-Herbaceous
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.—F2-Herbaceous
Sisymbrium orientale L.—F3-Herbaceous
Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Stellaria media subsp. pallida (Dumort.) Aschers. & syn= Brassica kaber var. orientalis (L.) Scoggan Sisymbrium polyceratium L.—F3-Herbaceous
Thlaspi arvense L.—F2-Herbaceous
Stellaria parva Pedersen—F3-Herbaceous
Vaccaria hispanica
(P. Mill.) Rauschert—F2-Herbaceous
Vaccaria pyramidata Medic.—F2-Herbaceous
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) P. Mill.—F3-Woody

Pereskia aculeata P. Mill.—F3-Woody
Casuarina equisetifolia L.—F3-Woody WATCH
Campanula rapunculoides L.—F3-Herbaceous
Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.—F3-Herbaceous
Wahlenbergia marginata (Thunb.) A. DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Atriplex holocarpa
F. Muell.—F3-Woody
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Atriplex rosea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea quamoclit L.—F3-Herbaceous
Atriplex semibaccata R. Br.—F1-Herbaceous
Ipomoea setosa Ker-Gawl.—F4-Herbaceous
Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntz—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea tricolor Cav.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Kochia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Schrad.
Ipomoea turbinata Lag.—F4-Herbaceous
Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott—F1-Herbaceous
Ipomoea violacea L.—F4-Herbaceous
Beta vulgaris L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea wrightii Gray—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.
Chenopodium album L.—F2-Herbaceous
Chenopodium ambrosioides L.—F2-Herbaceous
Kalanchoe daigremontana Raym.-Hamet & Perrier—F3-
Chenopodium botrys L.—F3-Herbaceous
Chenopodium glaucum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Kalanchoe delagoensis Ecklon & Zeyh.—F4-Herbaceous
Chenopodium murale L.—F2-Herbaceous
Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex Koch & Ziz—F4-
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier—F4-
syn= Chenopodium album var. viride (L.) Moq.
syn= Chenopodium viride L.
Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Chenopodium carinatum auct. non R. Br.
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.—F4-Herbaceous
Chenopodium vulvaria L.—F4-Herbaceous
Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf.—F4-
Salsola collina Pallas—F4-Herbaceous
Salsola kali L. subsp. pontica (Pallas) Mosyakin—F1-
syn= Citrullus vulgaris var. citroides Bailey Herbaceous
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. var. lanatusF4-
Salsola tragus L.—F1-Herbaceous
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Salsola iberica (Sennen & Pau) Botsch. ex Czerepanov syn= Coccinia cordifolia sensu Correll & Johnston syn= Salsola kali subsp. tragus (L.) Celak.
Cucumis anguria L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cucumis dipsaceus C.G. Ehrenb. ex Spach—F3-Herbaceous
Spinacia oleracea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cucumis melo L.—F2-Herbaceous
melo var. dudain Naud.—F4-Herbaceous
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.—F3-Herbaceous
Hypericum perforatum L.—F2-Woody WATCH
Luffa aegyptiaca P. Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Conocarpus erectus L.—F3-Woody
Momordica balsamina L.—F4-Herbaceous
Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn.—F3-Woody
Momordica charantia L.—F4-Herbaceous
Commelina communis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cuscuta japonica Choisy—F3-Herbaceous
Gibasis pellucida (Mart. & Gal.) D.R. Hunt—F2-Herbaceous
Cuscuta suaveolens Ser.—F3-Herbaceous
Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Aneilema nudicaule (Burm. f.) G. Don Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C.B. Clarke—F3-Herbaceous
Cyperus difformis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cyperus entrerianus Bockeler—F1-Herbaceous
Convolvulus arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cyperus eragrostis Lam.—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea alba L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.—F4-Herbaceous
Cyperus involucratus Rottb.—F2-Herbaceous
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet—F3-Herbaceous
Cyperus iria L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ipomoea capillacea (Kunth) G. Don—F3-Herbaceous
Cyperus phaeolepis Cherm.—F4-Herbaceous
Ipomoea carnea Jacq.—F2-Herbaceous
Cyperus prolixus Kunth—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Ipomoea crassicaulis (Benth.) B.L. Robins.
Cyperus rotundus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Rhynchospora debilis Gale—F3-Herbaceous
Ipomoea fistulosa Mart.—F4-Herbaceous
Ipomoea hederifolia L.—F4-Herbaceous
Dioscorea bulbifera L.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Ipomoea coccinea var. hederifolia (L.) Gray
Ipomoea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl) Roemer & J.A. Schultes Scabiosa atropurpurea L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth—F3-Herbaceous
Dipsacus fullonum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
Medicago lupulina L.—F2-Herbaceous
Cyrtomium falcatum (L. f.) K. Presl—F3-Herbaceous
Medicago minima (L.) L.—F2-Herbaceous
Medicago orbicularis (L.) Bartalini—F2-Herbaceous
Medicago polymorpha L.—F2-Herbaceous
Elaeagnus angustifolia L.—F3-Woody WATCH
Medicago sativa L.—F2-Herbaceous
Elaeagnus commutata Rydb.—F3-Woody
Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.—F3-Woody
Melilotus albus Medik.—F1-Herbaceous
Melilotus indicus
(L.) All.—F1-Herbaceous
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.—F1-Herbaceous
Croton argenteus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Neptunia plena (L.) Benth.—F3-Herbaceous
Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.—F3-Herbaceous
Oxyrhynchus volubilis Brandeg.—F4-Herbaceous
Euphorbia cyparissias L.—F4-Herbaceous
Prosopis laevigata (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wil—ld.) M.C.
Euphorbia exigua L.—F3-Herbaceous
Euphorbia helioscopia L.—F3-Herbaceous
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & Almeida—
Euphorbia lathyris L.—F3-Herbaceous
F2-Woody WATCH
Manihot esculenta Crantz—F3-Woody
Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster—F3-Herbaceous
Senna corymbosa (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby—F3-Woody
Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.—F3-Herbaceous
Phyllanthus urinaria L.—F2-Herbaceous
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link—F2-Herbaceous
Ricinus communis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Triadica sebifera (L.) Small—F1-Woody
Sesbania emerus (Aubl.) Urb.—F2-Herbaceous
Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth.—F3-Herbaceous
Sesbania sericea (Willd.) Link—F3-Herbaceous
Aeschynomene evenia C. Wright—F3-Herbaceous
Spartium junceum L.—F3-Woody
Albizia julibrissin Durazz.—F2-Woody
Sphaerophysa salsula (Pallas) DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.—F3-Woody
Trifolium arvense L.—F3-Herbaceous
Alhagi maurorum Medik.—F3-Herbaceous
Trifolium campestre Schreb.—F3-Herbaceous
Trifolium dubium Sibthorp—F2-Herbaceous
Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Trifolium incarnatum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Arachis hypogaea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Trifolium lappaceum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Wallich ex D. Dietr.—F3-
Trifolium polymorphum Poir.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Trifolium amphianthum Torr. & Gray syn= Poinciana gilliesii Wallich ex Hook.
Trifolium pratense L.—F3-Herbaceous
Caesalpinia mexicana Gray—F3-Woody
Trifolium repens L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Poinciana mexicana (Gray) Britt. & Rose Trifolium resupinatum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.—F3-Woody
Trifolium subterraneum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Trifolium vesiculosum Savi—F2-Herbaceous
Clitoria ternatea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia grandiflora Scop.—F3-Herbaceous
Coronilla varia L.—F2-Herbaceous
Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray—F3-Herbaceous
Crotalaria retusa L.—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia lathyroides L.—F3-Herbaceous
Crotalaria spectabilis Roth—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia lutea L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Crotalaria retzii A.S. Hitchc.
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh.—F2-Herbaceous
Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Vicia sativa var. angustifolia (L.) Ser.
Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) Hook. & Arn.
syn= Vicia sativa var. segetalis (Thuill.) Ser.
Lathyrus aphaca L.—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativaF3-Herbaceous
Lathyrus hirsutus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Lathyrus latifolius L.—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb.—F2-Herbaceous
Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.—F3-Herbaceous
Vicia villosa Radzhi subsp. varia (Host) Corb.—F3-Herbaceous
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don—F2-Herbaceous
Vicia villosa Radzhi subsp. villosaF2-Herbaceous
Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit—F3-Woody
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.—F3-Herbaceous
Lotus corniculatus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC.—F1-Woody
Macroptilium gibbosifolium (Ortega) A. Delgado—F4-
Fumaria densiflora DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Medicago arabica (L.) Huds.—F2-Herbaceous
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Fumaria officinalis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Salvia tiliifolia Vahl—F3-Herbaceous
Fumaria parviflora Lam.—F4-Herbaceous
Scutellaria minor Hudson—F3-Herbaceous
Scutellaria racemosa Pers.—F3-Herbaceous
Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce—F2-Herbaceous
Sideritis lanata L.—F3-Herbaceous
Centaurium muhlenbergeii (Griseb.) Piper—F2-
Stachys floridana Shuttlew. ex Benth.—F2-Herbaceous
Erodium botrys (Cav.) Bertol.—F3-Herbaceous
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl—F3-Woody WATCH
Erodium malacoides (L.) Willd.—F3-Herbaceous
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. ext Ait.—F2-Herbaceous
Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & Crawford—F2-Woody
Geranium dissectum L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Spirodela punctata (G. Mey.) C.H. Thompson GOODENIACEAE
Scaveola plumieri (L.) Vahl—F3-Herbaceous
Allium ampeloprasum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Allium porrum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.—F1-Woody
Alstroemeria pulchella L.f.—F3-Herbaceous
Asparagus officinalis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Asphodelus fistulosus L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Myriophyl um proserpinacoides Gil ies ex Hook. & Crinum bulbispermum (Burm.f.) Milne-R. & Schweick.—F3-
Myriophyllum spicatum L.—F1-Woody
syn= Crinum longifolium (L.) Thunb.
Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.—F3-Herbaceous
Egeria densa Planch.—F2-Woody
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle—F1-Woody
Hyacinthus orientalis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.—F2-Woody
Lilium longiflorum Thunb.—F3-Herbaceous
Muscari comosum (L.) Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.—F3-Herbaceous
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.—F3-Herbaceous
Crocosmia ×crocosmiiflora (V. Lemoine) N.E. Br.—F4-
syn= Muscari racemosum (L.) Lam. & DC.
Ornithogalum umbellatum L.—F4-Herbaceous
Iris pallida Lam.—F4-Herbaceous
Tristagma uniflorum (Lindl.) Traub—F3-Herbaceous
Iris pseudacorus L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Ipheion uniflorum (Lindl.) Raf.
Romulea rosea (L.) Eckl.—F3-Herbaceous
Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.) -Herbaceousert—F3-
Tritonia crocosmifolia Lem.—F3-Herbaceous
Zephyranthes grandiflora Lindl.—F3-Herbaceous
Juncus capitatus Weigel—F2-Herbaceous
Hydrocleys nymphoides (H. & B. ex Willd.) Buch.—F2-
Ajuga reptans L.—F3-Herbaceous
Glechoma hederacea L.—F4-Herbaceous
Hyptis mutabilis
(Rich.) Briq.—F3-Herbaceous
Lamium amplexicaule L.—F2-Herbaceous
Linum grandiflorum Desf.—F3-Herbaceous
Lamium purpureum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Linum usitatissimum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) Ait. f.—F2-Herbaceous
Leonurus cardiaca L.—F3-Herbaceous
Buddleja lindleyana Fort.—F3-Woody
Leonurus sibiricus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Marrubium vulgare
Mentha arvensis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw.—F1-Herbaceous
Mentha ×piperita L.—F3-Herbaceous
Mentha ×rotundifolia (L.) Huds.—F3-Herbaceous
Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F. Macbr.—F2-Herbaceous
Mentha spicata L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cuphea glutinosa Cham. & Schlecht.—F3-Herbaceous
Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.—F3-Herbaceous
Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.—F3-Herbaceous
Moluccella laevis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Lagerstroemia indica L.—F2-Woody
Nepeta cataria L.—F3-Herbaceous
Lythrum salicaria L.—F3-Herbaceous
Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Prunella vulgaris L.—F2-Herbaceous
Liriodendron tulipifera L.—F3-Woody
Rosmarinus officinalis L.—F3-Woody
Salvia hispanica
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
syn= Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini et al.
Abutilon theophrasti Medik.—F3-Herbaceous
Oenothera cordata J.W. Loudon—F2-Herbaceous
Alcea rosea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schlechter—F3-Herbaceous
Hibiscus esculentus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus trionum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Orobanche minor Sm.—F3-Herbaceous
Krapovickasia physaloides (Presl) Fryxell—F3-Herbaceous
Orobanche ramosa L.—F1-Herbaceous
Lavatera trimestris L.—W2
Malva neglecta Wallr.—F2-Herbaceous
Oxalis corniculata L.—F3-Herbaceous
Malva parviflora L.—F2-Herbaceous
Oxalis debilis Kunth—F2-Herbaceous
Malva rotundifolia L.—F3-Herbaceous
Oxalis articulata Savigny—F2-Herbaceous
Malva sylvestris L.—F3-Herbaceous
Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke—F2-
Malvaviscus penduliflorus DC.—F4-Herbaceous
Eschscholzia californica Cham.—F3-Herbaceous
Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J.H. Rudolph—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Malvaviscus aboreus var. penduliflorus (DC.) Schery Pavonia hastata Cav.—F3-Herbaceous
Papaver rhoeas L.—F3-Herbaceous
Papaver somniferum
Melia azedarach
Ceratopteris thalictroides
(L.) Brongn.—F2-Woody
Nymphoides indica
(L.) Kuntze—F2-Woody
Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) Kuntze—F2-Woody
Sesamum orientale L.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Sesamum indicum L.
Glinus lotoides
Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser.—F2-Herbaceous
Pinus elliottii Engelm.—F3-Woody
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Hér. ex Vent.—F2-Woody
Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth—F3-Herbaceous
Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai—F2-Herbaceous
Ficus carica L.—F3-Woody
Plantago coronopus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ficus pumila L.—F3-Woody
Plantago lanceolata L.—F2-Herbaceous
Morus alba L.—F2-Woody
Plantago major L.—F2-Herbaceous
POACEAE Grass Family
Ardisia crenata Sims—F3-Woody WATCH
Achnatherum clandestinum (Hack.) Barkworth—F3-
Myrtus communis L.—F3-Woody
syn= Stipa clandestina Hack.
Aegilops cylindrica Host—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Triticum cylindricum (Host) Ces., Pass., & Gib.
Bougainvillea glabra Choisy—F3-Herbaceous
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.—F3-Herbaceous
Mirabilis jalapa L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Agropyron subsp. pectinatum (Bieb.) Tzvelev OLEACEAE
Jasminum mesnyi Hance—F3-Woody
syn= Agropyron pectiniforme Roemer & Schultes Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.—F3-Woody
syn= Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) J.A. Schultes Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f.—F1-Woody
Agrostis avenacea J.F. Gmel.—F3-Herbaceous
Ligustrum quihoui Carr.—F1-Woody
Agrostis stolonifera L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ligustrum sinense Lour.—F1-Woody
syn= Agrostis alba auct. non L.
syn= Agrostis gigantea Roth ONAGRACEAE
syn= Agrostis stolonifera subsp. gigantea (Roth) Schuebl. Ludwigia erecta (L.) H. Hara—F3-Herbaceous
Ludwigia grandiflora (M. Micheli) Greuter & Burdet subsp.
Aira caryophyllea L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ludwigia grandiflora
syn= Aira caryophyllea var. capillaris (Host) Mutel subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz—F2-
Alopecurus geniculatus L.—F4-Herbaceous
Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.—F3-Herbaceous
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.—F3-Herbaceous
Desmazeria rigida (L.) Tutin—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Anthoxanthum odoratum var. puelii (Lecoq & La- syn= Catapodium rigidum (L.) Hubbard ex Dony Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk.) Stapf—F1-Herbaceous
Anthoxanthum odoratum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino—F3-Herbaceous
Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E. Hubbard—F1-
syn= Arthraxon hispidus var. cryptatherus (Hack.) Honda Herbaceous
Arundo donax L.—F1-Woody
Dichanthium sericeum (R. Br.) A. Camus—F1-Herbaceous
Avena fatua L.—F2-Herbaceous
Avena sativa L.—F3-Herbaceous
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.—F2-
Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake—F3-Herbaceous
Digitaria milanjiana (Rendle) Stapf—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.—F2-Herbaceous
Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica (Rupr. ex F. & M.)
Digitaria violascens Link—F2-Herbaceous
Celarier & Harlan—F1-Herbaceous
syn= Digitaria ischaemum var. violascens (Link) Radford syn= Andropogon ischaemum var. songaricus Rupr. ex Echinochloa colona (L.) Link—F2-Herbaceous
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.—F2-Herbaceous
Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus—F3-Herbaceous
Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Griseb.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Echinochloa crus-gal i var. frumentacea (Link) W. Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv.—F3-Herbaceous
Briza maxima L.—F3-Herbaceous
Echinochloa paludigena Wiegand—F4-Herbaceous
Briza minor L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ehrharta calycina Sm.—F3-Herbaceous
Bromus arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr.— Elymus hispidus (P. Opiz) Meldris—F2-Herbaceous
Bromus catharticus Vahl—F2-Herbaceous
Elymus ponticus (Podp.) Meldris—F3-Herbaceous
Elymus repens (L.) Gould—F3-Herbaceous
Bromus commutatus Schrad.—F3-Herbaceous
Eragrostis airoides Nees—F3-Herbaceous
Bromus diandrus Roth—F3-Herbaceous
Eragrostis amabilis (L.) Wight & Arnolt ex Nees—F3-
Bromus hordeaceus L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Eragrostis tenella (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & Schultes syn= Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. mol iformis (Lloyd) Eragrostis barrelieri Daveau—F2-Herbaceous
Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Bromus hordeaceus subsp. divaricatus (Bonnier & Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees—F2-Herbaceous
Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees—F1-Herbaceous
Bromus inermis Leyss.—F3-Herbaceous
Eragrostis minor Host—F3-Herbaceous
Eragrostis pilosa var. perplexa (Harvey) S. Koch—F3-
Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr.—F2-Herbaceous
Bromus lanceolatus Roth—F3-Herbaceous
Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. var. pilosa—F2-Herbaceous
Bromus rubens L.—F2-Herbaceous
Eragrostis superba Peyr.—F3-Herbaceous
Bromus secalinus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.—F3-Herbaceous
Bromus sterilis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Eriochloa pseudoacrotricha (Stapf ex Thellung) Hubbard
Bromus tectorum L.—F2-Herbaceous
ex Blake—F3-Herbaceous
Chloris canterae Arechav.—F2-Herbaceous
Eustachys caribaea (Spreng.) Herter—F3-Herbaceous
Chloris divaricata R. Br.—F3-Herbaceous
Eustachys retusa (Lag.) Kunth—F2-Herbaceous
Gastridium phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubbard—F3-
Chloris gayana Kunth—F2-Herbaceous
Coix lacryma-jobi L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter—F3-Herbaceous
Cortaderia selloana (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) Aschers. &
syn= Monerma cylindrica (Willd.) Coss. & Dur.
Cynodon aethiopicus Clayton & Harlan—F3-Herbaceous
Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & Hubbard—F3-
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.—F1-Herbaceous
Cynodon magennisii Hurcombe—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Manisuris altissima (Poir.) A.S. Hitchc.
Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst—F3-Herbaceous
Heteropogon melanocarpus (Ell.) Benth.—F3-Herbaceous
Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy—F4-Herbaceous
Holcus lanatus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cynosurus echinatus L.—F3-Herbaceous
Hordeum murinum L. subsp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev—F4-
Dactylis glomerata L.—F2-Herbaceous
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.—F2-Herbaceous
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.—F2-
Pennisetum nervosum (Nees) Trin.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Critesion murinum subsp. leporinum (Link) A. Löve Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher—F3-Herbaceous
Pennisetum villosum R. Br. ex Fresen.—F2-Herbaceous
Hordeum vulgare L.—F3-Herbaceous
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.—F3-Herbaceous WATCH
Phalaris arundinacea L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ixophorus unisetus (J. Presl) Schltdl.—F3-Herbaceous
Phalaris brachystachys Link—F3-Herbaceous
Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench—F3-Herbaceous
Phalaris canariensis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Leptochloa chloridiformis (Hack. ex Stuck.) Parodi—F3-
Phalaris minor Retz.—F3-Herbaceous
Phleum pratense L.—F3-Herbaceous
Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire—F2-
Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière—F2-Woody
Poa annua L.—F2-Herbaceous
Poa bulbosa L.—F4-Herbaceous
Lolium perenne L.—F1-Herbaceous
Poa compressa L.—F3-Herbaceous
Poa trivialis L.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Lolium perenne subsp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Lolium perenne var. multiflorum (Lam.) Parnell Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Lolium perenne subsp. italicum (A. Braun) Husnot Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski—F4-Herbaceous
Lolium pratense (Huds.) S.J. Darbyshire—F3-Herbaceous
Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev—F3-Herbaceous
Lolium rigidum Gaudin—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Koeleria phleoides (Vill.) Pers.
syn= Lolium perenne subsp. rigidum (Gaudin) Löve & Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton—F3-
Lolium temulentum L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Lolium temulentum var. arvense (With.) Lilja Luziola peruviana Juss. ex J. F. Gmel.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Rottboellia exaltata (L.) L. f.
Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka—F2-Herbaceous
Saccharum officinarum L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubbard Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase—F3-Herbaceous
Mnesithea granularis (L.)—F4-Herbaceous
Schismus barbatus (Loefl. ex L.) Thellung—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze Sclerochloa dura (L.) Beauv.—F2-Herbaceous
Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus—F3-Herbaceous
Secale cereale L.—F3-Herbaceous
Oryza sativa L.—F2-Herbaceous
Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.—F2-Herbaceous
Panicum antidotale Retz.—F2-Herbaceous
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.—F2-Herbaceous
Panicum bergii Arech.—F2-Herbaceous
Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.—F2-Herbaceous
Panicum coloratum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.—F2-Herbaceous
Panicum miliaceum L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Setaria viridis var. major (Gaudin) Pospichal Panicum repens L.—F3-Herbaceous
Sorghum almum Parodi—F4-Herbaceous
Panicum trichoides Sw.—F3-Herbaceous
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench—F2-Herbaceous
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubbard—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Pholiurus incurvus (L.) Schinz & Thellung Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.—F1-Herbaceous
Paspalum almum Chase—F3-Herbaceous
Stenotaphrum secundatum ( Walter) Kuntze—F3-
Paspalum convexum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Flueggé—F3-
Themeda triandra Forssk.—F3-Herbaceous
Paspalum dilatatum Poir.—F2-Herbaceous
Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dewey—F4-
Paspalum hydrophilum Henr.—F4-Herbaceous
Paspalum malacophyllum Trin.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv.
Paspalum notatum Alain ex Flugge—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Paspalum notatum var. latiflorum J. Döll syn= Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. barbulatum (Schur) syn= Paspalum notatum var. saurae Parodi Paspalum scrobiculatum L.—F4-Herbaceous
Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Liu & Wang—F4-Herbaceous
Paspalum urvillei Steud.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Agropyron elongatum (Host) Beauv.
Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link—F1-Herbaceous
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.—F3-Herbaceous
Thinopyrum pycnanthum (Godr.) Barkworth—F4-
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
syn= Agropyron pycnanthum (Godr.) Godr. & Gren.
Rumex crispus L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Elymus pungens auct. non (Pers.) Melderis Rumex obtusifolius L.—F3-Herbaceous
Rumex paraguayensis Parodi—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Elytrigia pycnanthes (Godr.) A. Löve Rumex pulcher L.—F2-Herbaceous
Triraphis mollis R. Br.—F3-Herbaceous
Triticum aestivum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott—F3-Herbaceous
Urochloa brizantha (Hochstetter ex A. Rich.) R. Webster—F3-
syn= Brachiaria brizantha (Hochstetter ex A. Rich.) Stapf Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms—F1-Woody
Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. Webster—F1-Herbaceous
Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy—F3-Woody
Potamogeton crispus L.—F2-Woody
Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen—F3-Herbaceous

Anagallis arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Urochloa panicoides Beauv.—F3-Herbaceous
Urochloa plantaginea (Link) R. Webster—F3-Herbaceous
Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) A.S. Hitchc.
Urochloa ramosa (L.) Nguyen—F3-Herbaceous
Cheilanthes notholaenoides (Desv.) Maxon ex Weatherby—
Urochloa reptans (L.) Stapf.—F2-Herbaceous
Pteris multifida Poir.—F3-Herbaceous
Pteris vittata L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. & Hubb.
Vulpia bromoides (L.) S.F. Gray—F3-Herbaceous
Adonis annua L.—F3-Herbaceous
Clematis terniflora DC.—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Vulpia myuros (L.) K.C. Gmel.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Clematis dioscoreifolia Levl. & Vaniot Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Vulpia myuros var. hirsuta Hack.
Zea mays L.—F3-Herbaceous
Zea perennis (Hitchc.) Reeves & Manglesdorf—F3-
Consolida orientalis (J. Gay) Schroedinger—F4-Herbaceous
Ranuncus ficaria L.—F3-Herbaceous
Ranunculus marginatus
var. trachycarpus (Fisch. & Mey.)
Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Ranunculus trachycarpus Fisch. & Mey.
Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.—F3-Herbaceous
Ranunculus muricatus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ranunculus parviflorus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench—F3-Herbaceous
Ranunculus platensis Spreng.—F3-Herbaceous
Polygonum arenastrum Jord. ex Boreau—F2-Herbaceous
Ranunculus repens L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ranunculus sardous Crantz—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Polygonum aviculare var. arenastrum (Jord. ex Ranunculus trilobus Desf.—F3-Herbaceous
Polygonum argyrocoleon Steud. ex Kunze—F3-Herbaceous
Polygonum aviculare
Polygonum caespitosum Blume—F3-Herbaceous
Hovenia dulcis Thunb.—F3-Woody
Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum (Bruijn) A.N.
Paliurus spina-christi P. Mill.—F3-Woody
Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) Karst.—F3-Woody
Polygonum convolvulus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Polygonum hydropiper L.—F3-Herbaceous
Aphanes microcarpa (Boiss. & Reut.) Rothm.—F3-Herbaceous
Polygonum orientale L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Alchemilla microcarpa Boiss. & Reut.
Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke—F2-Herbaceous
Polygonum meisnerianum var. beyrichianum (C. & S.)
Photinia serratifolia (Desf.) Kalkm.—F3-Woody WATCH
Potentilla recta L.—F3-Herbaceous
Polygonum scandens L.
Prunus domestica L.—F3-Woody
Polygonum persicaria L.—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch—F3-Woody
Rumex acetosella L.—F3-Herbaceous
Pyracantha coccinea M. Roemer—F3-Woody
Rumex conglomeratus Murr.—F3-Herbaceous
Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H.L. Li—F3-Woody
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder—F3-Woody
Verbascum virgatum Stokes—F3-Herbaceous
Pyrus calleryana Dcne.—F2-Woody
Veronica agrestis L.—F4-Herbaceous
Pyrus communis L.—F3-Woody
Veronica arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl.—F1-Woody
Veronica persica Poir.—F2-Herbaceous
Rosa eglanteria L.—F3-Woody
Veronica polita Fries—F2-Herbaceous
Rosa laevigata Michx.—F2-Woody
Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm.—F3-Woody
Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle—F1-Woody
Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr.—F1-Woody
Rosa tomentosa
Rubus bifrons Vest ex Tratt.—F3-Herbaceous
Cestrum diurnum L.—F3-Woody
Cestrum nocturnum
Cestrum parqui L’Hér.—F3-Woody
Asperula arvensis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Datura inoxia P. Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.—F2-Herbaceous
Datura stramonium L.—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.
Lycianthes asarifolia (Kunth & Bouché) Bitter—F3-
Galium anglicum Hudson—F3-Herbaceous
Galium aparine L.—F2-Herbaceous
Lycium barbarum L.—F3-Woody
Paederia foetida L.—F3-Woody
Nicotiana glauca Graham—F2-Woody
syn= Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr.
Nicotiana longiflora Cav.—F4-Herbaceous
Richardia scabra L.—F2-Herbaceous
Nicotiana tabacum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Sherardia arvensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Nierembergia hippomanica Miers—F3-Herbaceous
Spermacoce verticillata L.—F3-Herbaceous
Petunia integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thellung—F3-
syn= Borreria verticillata (L.) G.F.W. Mey.
Citrus aurantium L.—F3-Woody
Physalis philadelphica Lam.—F4-Herbaceous
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.—F2-Woody
Ruta chalapensis L.—F3-Herbaceous
Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Baill.—F3-Herbaceous
Ruta graveolens L.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Salpichroa rhomboidea (Gillies & Hook.) Miers Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson—F3-Woody
Schizanthus pinnatus Ruiz & Pavón—F4-Herbaceous
Solanum capsicastrum Link ex Schauer—F3-Herbaceous
Populus alba L.—F3-Woody
Solanum capsicoides All.—F3-Herbaceous
Populus nigra L.—F3-Woody
Solanum diphyllum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Solanum erianthum D. Don—F3-Herbaceous
Salix ×pendulina Wenderoth—F3-Woody
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) Spooner
et al.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Salix babylonica auct. non L. p.p.
syn= Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Dunal) SALVINIACEAE
Salvinia molesta Mitchell—F1-Woody
Solanum lycopersicum Lam. var. lycopersicumF3-
Salvinia minima Baker—F2-Woody
syn= Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L.—F2-Herbaceous
Solanum pseudocapsicum L.—F3-Herbaceous
Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk.—F3-Woody
Solanum sarrachoides Sendt.—F3-Herbaceous
Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A.C. Smith—F3-Woody
Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam.—F3-Herbaceous
Solanum viarum Dunal—F1-Herbaceous
Bacopa repens (Sw.) Wettst.—F3-Herbaceous
Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn.—F3-Herbaceous
Bellardia trixago (L.) All.—F2-Herbaceous
Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange—F3-Herbaceous
Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight—F3-Woody
Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.—F3-Herbaceous
Melochia corchorifolia L.—F2-Herbaceous
Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume—F2-Woody
Linaria vulgaris
P. Mill.—F3-Herbaceous
Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell.—F3-Herbaceous
Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst.—F1-Woody
Mazus pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis—F2-Herbaceous
Tamarix chinensis Lour.—F1-Woody
including T. pentandra Pallas, T. ramosissima Ledeb.
Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel—F2-Herbaceous
Tamarix gallica L.—F1-Woody
Verbascum blattaria L.—F2-Herbaceous
including T. canariensis Willd., T. africana Poir.
Verbascum thapsus L.—F2-Herbaceous
Tamarix parviflora DC.—F1-Woody
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
syn= Verbena hybrida Grönland & Rümpler Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Ching—F3-
Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Troncoso—F2-Herbaceous
syn= Dryopteris uliginosa (Kunze) C. Christens.
syn= Thelypteris torresiana (Gaud.) Alston Lantana camara L.—F2-Woody
Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq.—F3-Woody
Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ.—F3-Herbaceous
syn= Lantana sellowiana Link & Otto syn= Lippia montevidensis Spreng.
Verbena bonariensis L.—F2-Herbaceous
Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.—F3-Woody WATCH
Verbena brasiliensis Vell.—F2-Herbaceous WATCH
Ulmus pumila L.—F1-Woody
Verbena litoralis Kunth—F4-Herbaceous
Verbena rigida Spreng.—F2-Herbaceous
Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.—F4-Herbaceous
Vitex agnus-castus L.—F2-Woody WATCH
Parietaria judaica L.—F4-Herbaceous
Vitex negundo L.—F3-Woody
Pilea microphylla (L.) Lieb.—F3-Herbaceous
Urtica urens L.—F3-Herbaceous
Viola tricolor L.—F3-Herbaceous
Valerianella locusta (L.) Betcke—F3-Herbaceous
Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnepain—F3-Herbaceous
Clerodendrum bungei Steud.—F3-Woody
Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Hook. & Arn.—F3-Herbaceous
Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze—F3-Woody
Peganum harmala L.—F2-Herbaceous
Duranta erecta L.—F3-Woody
Tribulus cistoides L.—F4-Herbaceous
syn= Duranta repens L. var. alba (Mast.) Bailey Tribulus terrestris L.—F2-Herbaceous
Zygophyllum fabago L.—F3-Herbaceous
Glandularia ×hybrida (Grönland & Rümpler) Nesom &
Non-native species in Texas ranked as F1. For aquatic species, the number of counties of occurrence is indicated in square brackets.
F1-WOODY (Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines)
Ailanthus altissima
Melia azedarach
Tamarix gallica (incl. T. canariensis, T.
Arundo donax
Nandina domestica
Ligustrum lucidum
Rosa bracteata
Tamarix parviflora
Ligustrum quihoui
Rosa multiflora
Triadica sebifera
Ligustrum sinense
Tamarix aphylla
Ulmus pumila
Lonicera japonica
Tamarix chinensis (incl. T. pentandra,
Wisteria sinensis
F1-HERBACEOUS (Annual and perennial herbs and grasses)
Atriplex semibaccata
Dichanthium annulatum
Melilotus officinalis
Bassia scoparia
Dichanthium aristatum
Orobanche ramosa
Bothriochloa ischaemum var.
Dichanthium sericeum
Pennisetum ciliare
Eragrostis lehmanniana
Rapistrum rugosum
Carduus nutans subsp. macroce-
Lolium perenne
Salsola kali subsp. pontica
Lygodium japonicum
Salsola tragus
Centaurea melitensis
Marrubium vulgare
Solanum viarum
Cynodon dactylon
Melilotus albus
Sorghum halepense
Cyperus entrerianus
Melilotus indicus
Urochloa maxima
Alternanthera philoxeroides [20+]
Hydrilla verticillata [6]
Nasturtium officinale [35]
Colocasia esculenta [11]
Myriophyllum aquaticum [18]
Pistia stratiotes [10 or more]
Eichhornia crassipes [25]
Myriophyllum spicatum [10]
Salvinia molesta [10]
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
Non-native species in Texas ranked as F2. For aquatic species, the number of counties of known occurrence is indicated in square brackets.
F2-WOODY (Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and woody vines)
Albizia julibrissin
Morus alba
Pyrus calleryana
Broussonetia papyrifera
Nicotiana glauca
Rosa laevigata
Hypericum perforatum
Phyllostachys aurea
Vitex agnus-castus
Lagerstroemia indica
Poncirus trifoliata
Lantana camara
Pueraria montana var. lobata
F2-HERBACEOUS (Annual and perennial herbs and grasses)
Aegilops cylindrica
Conringia orientalis
Gamochaeta pensylvanica
Aira caryophyllea
Consolida ajacis
Geranium dissectum
Alternanthera caracasana
Convolvulus arvensis
Gibasis pellucida
Amaranthus blitum
Conyza bonariensis
Glandularia pulchella
Ammi majus
Coronilla varia
Gomphrena globosa
Anagallis arvensis
Coronopus didymus
Hedera helix
Anthemis cotula
Croton argenteus
Hedypnois cretica
Anthoxanthum odoratum
Cruciata pedemontana
Heliotropium amplexicaule
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cucumis melo
Heliotropium indicum
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Cuphea carthagenensis
Holosteum umbellatum
Avena fatua
Cyclospermum leptophyllum
Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum
Bellardia trixago
Cyperus difformis
Hypochaeris brasiliensis var.
Brassica rapa
Cyperus involucratus
Briza minor
Cyperus iria
Hypochaeris glabra
Bromus arvensis
Cyperus rotundus
Hypochaeris microcephala var.
Bromus catharticus
Dactylis glomerata
Bromus hordeaceus
Dactyloctenium aegyptium
Hypochaeris radicata
Bromus japonicus
Datura stramonium
Ipomoea carnea
Bromus rubens
Daucus carota
Juncus capitatus
Bromus secalinus
Descurainia sophia
Kummerowia striata
Bromus tectorum
Desmazeria rigida
Lactuca serriola
Buglossoides arvensis
Digitaria ischaemum
Lamium amplexicaule
Bupleurum rotundifolium
Digitaria sanguinalis
Lamium purpureum
Camelina microcarpa
Digitaria violascens
Lathyrus hirsutus
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Diplotaxis muralis
Leonotis nepetifolia
Cardamine debilis
Duchesnea indica
Lespedeza cuneata
Cardamine hirsuta
Echinochloa colona
Leucanthemum vulgare
Cardiospermum halicacabum
Echinochloa crus-galli
Lolium arundinaceum
Carduus pycnocephalus
Eleusine indica
Lolium temulentum
Centaurea cyanus
Elymus hispidus
Malva neglecta
Centaurium muhlenbergeii
Eragrostis barrelieri
Malva parviflora
Centaurium pulchellum
Eragrostis cilianensis
Malvastrum coromandelianum
Cerastium fontanum
Eragrostis curvula
Mazus pumilus
Cerastium glomeratum
Eragrostis pilosa var. pilosa
Medicago arabica
Cerastium pumilum
Erodium cicutarium
Medicago lupulina
Chenopodium album
Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa
Medicago minima
Chenopodium ambrosioides
Erucastrum gallicum
Medicago orbicularis
Chenopodium murale
Erysimum repandum
Medicago polymorpha
Chloris canterae
Eustachys retusa
Medicago sativa
Chloris gayana
Facelis retusa
Melinis repens
Chorispora tenella
Fatoua villosa
Melochia corchorifolia
Cichorium intybus
Galinsoga parviflora
Mollugo cerviana
Cirsium vulgare
Galium aparine
Murdannia nudiflora
Clematis terniflora
Gamochaeta antillana
Oenothera cordata
Commelina communis
Gamochaeta calviceps
Onopordum acanthium
Conium maculatum
Gamochaeta coarctata
Oryza sativa
Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
Oxalis articulata
Richardia scabra
Thlaspi arvense
Oxalis debilis
Ricinus communis
Torilis arvensis
Panicum antidotale
Rumex crispus
Torilis nodosa
Panicum bergii
Rumex pulcher
Tragopogon dubius
Panicum coloratum
Scabiosa atropurpurea
Tragopogon porrifolius
Parapholis incurva
Sclerochloa dura
Tribulus terrestris
Parentucellia viscosa
Scorzonera laciniata
Trifolium dubium
Paspalum dilatatum
Senecio vulgaris
Trifolium incarnatum
Paspalum notatum
Senna occidentalis
Trifolium polymorphum
Paspalum urvillei
Sesbania emerus
Trifolium repens
Peganum harmala
Setaria italica
Trifolium resupinatum
Pennisetum villosum
Setaria pumila
Trifolium vesiculosum
Perilla frutescens
Setaria verticillata
Urochloa reptans
Petrorhagia dubia
Setaria viridis
Vaccaria hispanica
Phyllanthus urinaria
Sherardia arvensis
Vaccaria pyramidata
Plantago lanceolata
Silene gallica
Verbascum blattaria
Plantago major
Sinapis arvensis
Verbascum thapsus
Poa annua
Sisymbrium altissimum
Verbena bonariensis
Polycarpon tetraphyllum
Sisymbrium irio
Verbena brasiliensis
Polygonum arenastrum
Sisymbrium officinale
Verbena rigida
Polygonum aviculare
Solivia anthemiifolia
Veronica arvensis
Polygonum convolvulus
Soliva sessilis
Veronica persica
Polygonum persicaria
Soliva stolonifera
Veronica polita
Polypogon monspeliensis
Sonchus asper
Vicia sativa subsp. nigra
Polypogon viridis
Sonchus oleraceus
Vicia tetrasperma
Prunella vulgaris
Sorghum bicolor
Vicia villosa subsp. villosa
Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum
Stachys floridana
Vinca major
Ranunculus muricatus
Stellaria media
Vulpia myuros
Ranunculus parviflorus
Stellaria pallida
Xanthium spinosum
Ranunculus repens
Taraxacum laevigatum
Youngia japonica
Ranunculus sardous
Taraxacum officinale
Ceratopteris thalictroides [3]
Limnophila sessiliflora [2]
Nymphoides indica [1]
Cryptocoryne beckettii [1]
Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. gran-
Nymphoides peltata [2]
Egeria densa [3]
diflora [3]
Ottelia alismoides [1]
Hydrocleys nymphoides [2]
Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexa-
Potamogeton crispus [8]
Hygrophila polysperma [2]
petala [9]
Salvinia minima [2]
Landoltia punctata [6]
Nomaphila stricta [1]
Xanthosoma sagittifolium [1]
Watch List: non-native species in Texas potentially ranked as F1. All F2 aquatic species are included.
From F2-WOODY:
Hypericum perforatum
Pyrus calleryana
Vitex agnus-castus
Pueraria montana var. lobata
From F3-WOODY:
Ardisia crenata
Leucaena leucocephala
Pistacia chinensis
Casuarina equisetifolia
Lonicera maackii
Schinus molle
Cinnamomum camphora
Macfadyena unguis-cati
Schinus terebinthifolius
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Photinia serratifolia
Ulmus parvifolia
Carduus tenuiflorus
Perilla frutescens
Torilis arvensis
Cirsium vulgare
Polygonum arenastrum
Verbena brasiliensis
Clematis terniflora
Polygonum persicaria
Lespedeza cuneata
Stachys floridana
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3(2)
Cryptostegia grandiflora
Imperata cylindrica
Microstegium vimineum
from F2-AQUATIC:
Ceratopteris thalictroides
Limnophila sessiliflora
Nymphoides indica
Cryptocoryne beckettii
Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. gran-
Nymphoides peltata
Egeria densa
Ottelia alismoides
Hydrocleys nymphoides
Ludwigia grandiflora subsp. hexa-
Potamogeton crispus
Hygrophila polysperma
Salvinia minima
Landoltia punctata
Nomaphila stricta
Xanthosoma sagittifolium
Potential and expanding new arrivals with global warming in south and coastal Texas:
Caesalpina bonduc
Conocarpus erectus
Rhizophora mangle
Canavalia rosea
Laguncularia racemosa
Scaveola plumieri
Cassytha filiformis
The authenticity of this report, especially in the F1 species and Watch List but also in discussion of concepts and other topics, owes to contributions from Bill Carr, Laura Hansen, Stephan Hatch, Eric Keith, Barney Lipscomb, Andy McDonald, Michael McRoberts, Tom Patterson, Jackie Poole, Mike Powell, Nelson Rich, Monique Reed, David Rosen, Jason Singhurst, Bruce Sorrie, Damon Waitt, and Justin Williams. Detailed journal reviews by Jackie Poole, Damon Waitt, and Bruce Hoagland were valuable in refinement of the ranking protocols—and the detailed commentary by Jackie Poole on everything from A to Z is appreciated beyond expression.
APRS implementAtion teAm. 2000. Alien plants ranking system (Version 5.1): A cooperative effort of the National Park Service, Ripon College, University of Minnesota, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online, Jamestown, North Dakota. <http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/aprs/index.htm> (Version 30SEP2002).
Austin City ConneCtion. 2009. Invasive plants to avoid. City of Austin. <http://www.ci.austin.tx.us/growgreen/ CArlson, M.L., I.V. lApinA, M. shephArd, J.S. Conn, R. densmore, P. spenCer, J. heys, J. riley, And J. nielsen. 2008. Invasiveness rank- ing system for non-native plants of Alaska. U.S.D.A., Forest Service Alaska Region R10-TP-143. Anchorage, Alaska.
Correll, D.S. And M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, hAtCh, S.L., K.N. gAndhi, And L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas. MP-1665, Texas Agric. Expt. Station, Texas A&M Univ., College Station.
heFFernAn, K.E., P.P. Coulling, J.F. townsend, And C.J. hutto. 2001. Ranking invasive exotic plant species in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-13. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. <http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/documents/rankinv.pdf> invAders oF texAs. 2009. Invaders of Texas: a citizen science program to detect and report invasive species. <http:// www.texasinvasives.org/invaders/index.php> Johnston, M.C. 1990. The vascular plants of Texas: a list, up-dating the ‘Manual of the vascular plants of Texas.’ Second edition. Published by the author.
JordAn, M.J. G. moore, And T.W. weldy. 2009. New York State plant ranking system for evaluating non-native plant species for invasiveness (DRAFT). <http://nyis.info/PlantAssessments/Assets/NY_Invasive_Plant_Ranking_ Intro.pdf> morse, L.E., J.M. rAndAll, N. Benton, R. hieBert, And S. lu. 2004. An invasive species assessment protocol: evaluating non-native plants for their impact on biodiversity. Version 1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. <http://www.
natureserve.org/library/invasiveSpeciesAssessmentProtocol.pdf> Nesom, Fundamental invasiveness index for non-native species of Texas
nesom, G.L. 2000. Which non-native plants are included in floristic accounts? Sida 19:189–193.
nesom, G.L. 2009a. Non-native species naturalized in Texas: reported since 1970. Documentation for the full list.

Source: http://www.texasnonnatives.org/TexNonNativesSidoid09.pdf

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IMPORTANT: PLEASE READ PART III: CONSUMER INFORMATION Pr Sandoz ® Clarithromycin Clarithromycin 250 and 500 mg film-coated tabletsThis leaflet is part III of a three-part “Product Monograph” published whenț if you have or develop severe diarrhea as this may be a sign of a moreSandoz Clarithromycin was approved for sale in Canada and is designedspecifically for consumers. This l


Ayahuasca Goes to International Medical Veritas Association The New York Times reported last week that the Supreme Court hasadded a religious case to be heard. The court wil decide whether thegovernment can ban the importation of a hal ucinogenic tea central to thereligious rituals of several Brazilian-based churches. The tea, known asAyahuasca, is made from two plants from the Amazon th

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