The use of highly acidic agricultural additives began in the middle of the 1800s when Justice von Liebig discovered that plants would grow with nitrogen, phosphate, and
potassium fertilizer (NPK fertilizer). Liebig believed that nitrogen must be supplied to plant roots in the form of ammonia, and recognized the possibility of substituting chemical fertilizers for natural (animal dung, etc.) ones. He was said to have originated the absurd theory that NPK provides all needed minerals. However, in the 11th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica, Liebig recanted the theory and admitted its
total falsity. Later editions of the encyclopedia, however, omitted that recantation. Submitting to pressure from chemical and fertilizer manufacturers, editors decided to omit rather than risk the encyclopedia's existence through possible loss of future gifts. And so
Liebig's unfortunate early recommendations continue to be practiced in Western agriculture and horticulture worldwide. NPK fertilizer also kills the microbes in the soil (it knocks out the nitrogen cycle). Without a complete nitrogen cycle plants cannot produce and uptake fulvic and
humic acids. Fulvic acid is, in essence, the principal active ingredient in humic acid. Fulvic acid converts inorganic minerals into organic minerals; our bodies and brains need 84 organic minerals that plants have transformed from the inorganic minerals in the soil into negatively charged ionic or bioelectrical forms of building blocks. Only
living land plants have the power to extract inorganic minerals from earth and convert them to organic minerals. Vitamins without organic minerals are of little value and quickly eliminated from the body, and every chemical reaction that takes place in the body requires enzymes, and enzyme activity is dependent upon organic minerals. Humic acid is nature’s most powerful anti-viral. Along with its anti-viral benefit, humic acid promotes human health in a variety of ways; it makes cell membranes more permeable, so nutrients can more easily enter the cell, as well as allowing waste to leave the cells more readily; it improves enzymatic reactions in cells,
increases absorption of oxygen, and decreases metabolic acids. Fulvic and humic acids have a microporous structure. These acids are thus capable of forming complexes with nonpolar solutes and certain drug molecules with low bioavailability; these molecules can be entrapped in the void so as to increase their
solubility and dissolution rate, thereby enhancing their bioavailability (Ghosal, 2003; Khanna, 2006). It enhances the properties of other herbs (Dash 1991). It also acts as a catalytic agent for promoting the action of the other tonic agents (Frawley 2001). Humic and fulvic acids are powerful organic electrolytes and contain potent
antioxidants called polyphenols. An electrolyte is a substance, soluble in water and other mediums, which is capable of conducting bioelectrical current. Antioxidants eradicate free radicals. Without fulvic and humic acids excess free radicals are free to
circulate throughout the body; they injure tissue and make cells susceptible to infections, diseases, and/or cancer causing mutations. Humic and fulvic acid also have the ability to complex and remove pesticides, radioactive elements, heavy metals (inorganic minerals), and other pollutants from our body by binding to these substances and flushing them out of the body, if unable to convert them. Obviously, by killing the microbes in the soil people and plants no longer have natural defenses against disease. To reduce such a vast biological complexity to NPK represented the scientific method at its reductionist worst; complex qualities were reduced to simple quantities. The
NPK mentality embraces a good deal more than fertilizer, however. Indeed, we begin to wonder, if it might not be one of the keys to everything wrong with modern civilization. Current farming methods, particularly the excessive use of organic NPK, synthetic
NPK, agrochemicals, and acid rain cause mineral aberrations and deficiencies, both in the soil and in the crop it yields. If our foods do not contain enough organic plant based minerals we simply starve to death (unless we supplement). Most knowledgeable people today recognize that the body must have certain
minerals to accomplish its work and preserve its health. However, only a few realize that these minerals must be in their organic state to be properly assimilated and utilized. The idea of administering inorganic minerals as supplements for humans started in the early twentieth century. Today hundreds of manmade mineral supplements exist
in many forms and come from many sources. Minerals must be consumed in their natural, unfragmented, and organic state to be of any benefit to the body.
• Only land plants can transform inorganic minerals into organic minerals.
• Animals must eat plants or plant-eating animals to obtain their organic
• Inorganic mineral supplements are injurious to the animal organism because
they are: 1) inorganic and 2) fragmented.
The body cells were designed to use water that contains electrolyte salts and/or organic mineral water that was once found in fruits, vegetables, meats, and dairy
products. However, thanks to the acid rain, chlorine, fluoride, dead soil, NPK fertilizer, pesticides, etc. our produce, meat, and dairy products are now loaded with toxic water, chemicals, and inorganic minerals.
When inorganic minerals are ingested (in food and/or water) a condition known as leukocytosis occurs within the body in thirty minutes to three hours after consuming them. Leukocytosis (a proliferation of white blood cells) is the body’s first line of defense against foreign and harmful body substances—in this case, the inorganic
minerals. Water should contain bicarbonate salts, not hard water loaded with inorganic minerals. Minerals do not work in isolation. When they are extracted from their natural
sources, the other co-existing vitamins, minerals, enzymes, etc., are not also extracted. Even if they were, the process of laboratory extraction destroys any vital benefits that may have been associated with the minerals. “The first thing that is destroyed in the laboratory when a nutrient is isolated from a food, is the delicate web of intelligence that binds the components of food together.” Deepak Chopra SHILAJIT OVERVIEW
Shilajit is a truly remarkable substance with a long history of human usage for healing. It is the very best mineral supplement that we have found. It has 84 organic plant based minerals, trace minerals, and ultra trace minerals; it also has fulvic,
humic, and ulmic acids at optimal and relative amounts. It is considered one of the most important substances in the Indian system of Ayurvedic medicine. In India, it is believed that there is almost no curable disease that cannot be assisted with the consumption of Shilajit.
Himalayan tribal villagers, who were observing white monkeys migrating to the
higher mountains in summer months, made the discovery of Shilajit. The monkeys were observed to lick the semi-solid substance exuding out of the rock crevices. Since observing animal behaviors were an important part of healthcare research in ancient times, those villagers attributed the great strength and longevity of those monkeys to this substance. Curious by the thought, they themselves started taking
the substance and reported a broad spectrum of improvement in their health and stamina. It gave them more energy, relieved digestive problems, increased sex drive, improved memory, etc. (Dabur 2003).
SYNOPISIS OF BENEFITS
This is a brief description of what Shilajit is said to help with. Do further research for
yourself: “these following statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. Shilajit is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.” Shilajit is known as a very potent antioxidant that helps fight free radicals and oxidation of the body’s cells. For this reason, it is thought to promote longevity.
It is said that Shilajit can be used to reduce pain and treat inflammation. Many people consume it to treat arthritis, joint, and muscle pain. Although some use Shilajit to obtain relief from kidney stones, use caution if the stones are made of uric
acid or if uric acid crystals are in the urine as uric acid increases with the administration of Shilajit. For this same reason, Shilajit is contraindicated for those suffering from gouty arthritis or gout. (Halpern 2003). Shilajit is used to strengthen the nervous system and help with stress, mental fatigue, epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. It is also thought to promote better concentration, increased learning ability, and enhance memory. It’s used to treat heart related ailments and maintain normal blood pressure. Shilajit can be beneficial to the digestive system, stomach, and intestines. It can relieve indigestion, gastritis, constipation, and pain in the abdomen. It is thought to protect and enhance the workings of the kidneys, pancreas, and
thyroid gland as well as increase blood circulation. Shilajit is considered by some to be a protector of the liver, as it maintains proper secretion of enzymes and juices that are essential to healthy metabolism. Any anti-
microbial activity protects the body. It has been used as a strong immune system booster that protects the body from many types of illnesses, diseases, and infections, and has been used to treat many
respiratory problems, like cough and asthma. Shilajit can have antihistamine effects and so can be used for allergy symptom relief. Shilajit can increase physical strength, energy and stamina, making it great for hard working people and athletes. It is said to increase sperm count in men and regulate
sex hormones; thus it is thought to be a sexual enhancer. Many people with diabetes consume Shilajit, as it seems to help metabolize blood glucose and remove harmful toxins from the body as well as fight new toxin build-
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Shilajit can be expensive, but most people do not require large dosages (Frawley 2001). One suggested dosage is to take Shilajit powder with milk, 1 oz or more a day for severe conditions; 0.25 – 1 tsp three times per day otherwise (Tirtha 1998). (Note - our opinion: Our current condition is beyond severe, almost everyone on the planet has been completely demineralized of necessary organic minerals).
Shilajit is used for edema, particularly in weak types, 1-2 grams twice a day with water or milk (Frawley 1989). For diabetes sufferers it has been recommended in much higher doses such as 1 g twice per day. Shilajit mixes well with ashwagandha
for seminal debility and with gokshura as a urinary tonic (Halpern 2003). For the treatment of both male and female infertility, it can be taken in higher doses of 1 tsp twice per day. For men combine with ashwagandha and for women with shatavari. Consider Shilajit in all vata and kapha urinary disorders. As a tonic for vata, combine
it with Goksura. Shilajit is considered by some to be among the best herbs for the long-term management of diabetes mellitus where it should be combined with gumar (Halpern 2003-2). SHILAJIT MODERN USES
Treat gastritis, constipation and indigestion
Increase physical strength and endurance
Treat premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction
Treat urinary problems and kidney stones
Increase natural growth hormone production
This is a list of suggested usage from referenced sources.
DOCUMENTED INDICATIONS Cardiovascular Dermatological
Parasitic diseases of the skin (Chopra 1958).
Endocrinology, reproductive system, obstetrics/gynecology, prostate
Sexual debility (Frawley 1989) (Frawley 2001).
Arças (piles or hemorrhoids ) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).
Krimi (parasitic infestation) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).
Hematology, lymphatic, cancer
Edema (dropsy) (Chopra 1958) (Frawley 1989) (Frawley 2001).
Immunology, aids, infectious diseases
Kñaya (comsumption) (Dash 1991) (Tierra 1988).
Liver and gallbladder
Udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascites) (Dash 1991).
Unmade (insanity) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 2001).
Respiratory (lower and upper respiratory tract including ears, nose, throat, sinuses) Rheumatological, orthopedic, muscles, contusions
Fractures (Chopra 1958) (Tierra 1988) (Puri 2003).
Bodybuilding (Muscular hypertrophy) (Bucci 2000)
Urinary tract system (kidney, ureter, bladder)
Pameha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes) (Dash 1991) (Frawley 1989).
Seeta meha (renal glycosuria, a type of Kapha diabetes) (Qutab 1996)
Sikata meha (Lithuria, a type of Kapha diabetes) (Qutab 1996)
Shanai meha (Frequent urination caused by a stone in prostate area) (Qutab 1996)
Kidney stones (renal calculi) (Chopra 1958) (Frawley 2001).
Chronic urinary tract problems (Tierra 1988).
Urinary tract infections (Frawley 1989).
Kidney Tonic (Frawley 1989)(Frawley 2001).
Other Uses Yogavähi, which means that it enhances the properties of other herbs (Dash 1991). It acts as a catalytic agent for promoting the action of the other tonic agents. (Frawley 2001).
Geriatric tonic (Frawley 1989) (Puri 2003).
Tissues and Systems
Shilajit affects the nerve and reproductive tissues and the urinary, nervous and reproductive systems (Frawley 2001). It also has specific action on the endocrine system and affects all tissue systems. It also strengthens agni (digestive fire) and reduces ama (toxins) (Halpern 2003).
Actions Herbal actions are alterative, diuretic, lithotroptic, antiseptic, tonic, rejuvenative (Frawley 2001). Other actions include anodyne, anthelmintic and blood sugar
reducer. (Halpern 2003, 2003-2). It also has a laxative effect and has absorbing and purifying properties (Bhishagratna 1998). “These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.”
REFERENCES There is a wealth of scientific evidence available for the efficacy of Shilajit:
Shilajit, A Materia Medica Monograph, Robert Talbert, 2004 Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK. Pharmacological actions of
Shilajit. Indian J Exp Biol. 1988 Oct; 26(10): 775-7.
Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2007. Shilajit: a review. Phytotherapy Research 21, 401–405.
Agarwal, S.P., Anwer, M.K., Aqil, M., 2008a. Complexation of furosemide with fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit: a novel approach. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 34, 506–511.
Agarwal, S.P., Khanna, R., Karmarkar, R., Anwer, M.K., Khar, R.K., 2008b. Physico-chemical, spectral and thermal characterization of Shilajit, a humic substance with
medicinal properties. Asian Journal of Chemistry 20, 209–217.
Bhishagratna KK. Susruta Samhita Vol 2, Chapter XIII. Varanasi, India: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varansi-1, 1998.
Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2000 Aug; 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S. Review.
Chen, Y., Senesi, N., Schnitzer, M., 1977. Information provided on humic
substances by E4/E6 ratios. Soil Science Society of America Journal 41,352–358.
Chopra, R.A., Chopra, I.C., Handa, K.L., 1958. Indigenous Drugs of India. U.N. Dhar and Sons, Calcutta. pp. 457–461.
Christl, I., Knicker, H., Kogel-Knabner, I., Kretzschmar, R., 2000. Chemical heterogeneity of humic substances: characterization of size fractions obtained by hollow-fibre ultrafiltration. European Journal of Soil Science 51, 617–625.
Dittmar, T., Koch, B.P., Hertkorn, N., Kattner, G., 2008. A simple and efficient method for the solid-phase extraction of dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) from seawater. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230–235.
Einsiedl, F., Hertkorn, N., Wolf, M., Frommberger, M., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Koch, B.P., 2007. Rapid biotic molecular transformation of fulvic acids in a karst aquifer. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 5474–5482.
Frotan, M.H., and Acharya, S.B. Pharmacological studies of shilajit. Indian Journal
Ghosal, S., 1989. Shilajit.6. The facets and facts of Shilajit. In: Vohara, S.B., Dandiya, P.C. (Eds.), Research and Development of Indigenous Drugs. Institute of
History of Medicine and Medical Research, New Delhi, pp.72–80.
Ghosal S, Lal J, Singh SK, Goel RK, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. The need for formulation of Shilajit by its isolated active constituents. Phytotherapy Res 1991; 5: 211-6.
Ghosal, S., 1990. Chemistry of Shilajit, an immunomodulatory rasayan. Pure and Applied Chemistry 62, 1285–1288.
Ghosal, S., 1992. Shilalit: its origin and significance. Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicine 9, 1–4.
Ghosal S, Reddy JP, Lal VK. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1976 May; 65(5): 772-3.
Ghosal S, Singh SK, Kumar Y, Srivatsava R. Antiulcerogenic activity of fulvic acids and 4-metoxy-6-carbomethyl biphenyl isolated from shilajit. Phytother Res. 1988;2:187-91.
Ghosal, S., 1993. Shilajit: Its origin and vital significance. In: Mukherjee, B. (Ed.),
Traditional Medicine. Oxford – IBH, New Delhi, pp. 308–319.
Ghosal, S., Reddy, J.P., Lal, V.K., 1976. Shilajit I: chemical constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 65, 772–773.
Gondar, D., Lopez, R., Fiol, S., Antelo, J.M., Arce, F., 2005. Characterization and acid–base properties of fulvic and humic acids. Geoderma 126, 367–374.
Hockaday, W.C., Grannas, A.M., Hatcher, P.G., 2005. Interactions between black
carbon and natural organic matter: influence on the sorptive uptake of pyrene by forest soil. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 229, U886.
Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya SK. Effects of Shilajit on memory, anxiety and brain
monoamines in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1992; 24:12 – 17.
Kim, S., Kramer, R.W., Hatcher, P.G., 2003. Graphical method for analysis of ultrahigh-resolution broadband mass spectra of natural organic matter, the van Krevelen diagram. Analytical Chemistry 75, 5336–5344.
Koch, B.P., Dittmar, T., 2006. From mass to structure: an aromaticity index for high-resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 20, 926–932.
Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Engbrodt, R., Dittmar, T., Kattner, G., 2005. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 3299–3308.
Koch, B.P., Witt, M., Kattner, G., Dittmar, T., 2007. Fundamentals of molecular formula assignment to ultrahigh resolution mass data of natural organic matter. Analytical Chemistry 79, 1758–1763.
Kramer, R.W., Kujawinski, E.B., Hatcher, P.G., 2004. Identification of black carbon derived structures in a volcanic ash soil humic acid by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Environmental Science & Technology 38, 3387–3395.
Kujawinski, E.B., Freitas, M.A., Zang, X., Hatcher, P.G., Green-Church, K.B., Jones, R.B., 2002. The application of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to the structural characterization of natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 33, 171–180.
Martin, F., 1975. Humic acids from lignite. 1. Analytical characteristics and thermal-degradation. Fuel 54, 236–240.
Schepetkin, I.A., Khlebnikov, A.I., Kwon, B.S., 2002. Medical drugs from humus matter: focus on mumie. Drug Development Research 57, 140–159.
Schepetkin, I.A., Khlebnikov, A.I., Ah, S.Y., Woo, S.B., Jeong, C.S., Klubachuk, O.N., Kwon, B.S., 2003. Characterization and biological activities of humic
substances from mumie. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51, 5245–5254.
Schliebs R, Liebmann A, Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S, Bigl V. Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and
Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int. 1997 Feb; 30(2):181-90.
Schnitzer, M., 1972. Chemical, spectroscopic and thermal methods for
the classification and characterization of humic substances. In: Proceedings International Meeting Humic Substances, Nieuwersluis, Wageningen, pp. 293–307.
Senesi, N., Miano, T.M., Provenzano, M.R., Brunetti, G., 1989. Spectroscopic and compositional comparative characterization of i.h.s.s. reference and standard fulvic and humic acids of various origin. The Science of the Total Environment 81/82, 143–156.
Stenson, A.C., Marshall, A.G., Cooper, W.T., 2003. Exact masses and chemical formulas of individual Suwannee River fulvic acids from ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.
Stevenson, F.J., Goh, K.M., 1971. Infrared spectra of humic acids and related substances. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35, 471–483.
Tan, K.H., Giddens, J.E., 1972. Molecular weights and spectral characteristics of humic and fulvic acids. Geoderma 8, 221–229.
Tiwari P, Ramarao P, Ghosal S. Effects of Shilajit on the development of tolerance to morphine in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Mar; 15(2): 177-9.
Ziechmann, W., 1964. Spectroscopic investigations of lignin, humic substances and peat. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 28, 1555–1566.
Name ___________________________ Date ________________________ Directions: In the passage below, circle all of the words that need to be capitalized. As we send our children to school everyday, it's important to know how clean and healthy their schools are. students spend approximately 14,000 hours inside buildings over the course of their school years. one area of growing concern is the air
Department of the Treasury Bureau of the Public Debt Government Securities Regulations Staff 799 9th Street NW Washington, DC 20220 Mizuho Securities USA Inc. (“MSUSA”) appreciates the opportunity to comment on issuance of Floating Rate Notes (“Treasury FRNs”) by the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”). As a Primary Dealer, MSUSA has significant experience making markets