Report of the international narcotics control board for 2012

CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION annually, with the average length of stay in treatment 733. Bosnia and Herzegovina has become an important being just one month. Rates for successful treatment regional trafficking hub for narcotics shipments. Main completion and relapse were not reported. trafficking routes pass through Bulgaria, Romania and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to Kosovo,33 730. According to the Ministry of Health of Iraq, then through Montenegro and Serbia to Bosnia and the number of drug abusers entering outpatient and Herzegovina, and from there to Croatia and Slovenia and inpatient treatment countrywide has steadily increased, Western European markets. with 1,462 individuals receiving treatment in 2008, 2,337 individuals in 2009, 5,668 individuals in 2010 and 734. In October 2011, the Convention of the Southeast 2,761 individuals in the first half of 2011. The highest European Law Enforcement Center entered into force, number of those entering treatment are from the and the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) southern district of Basra, bordering the Islamic Republic Center became the Southeast European Law Enforcement of Iran, with trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol) being the most Center (SELEC). The main objective of SELEC is to commonly reported substance of abuse. That substance is provide support for the competent national authorities of also found to be abused in the Syrian Arab Republic. The Member States and enhance coordination in preventing Board encourages the Governments of Afghanistan and and combating organized crime in the region. SELEC Iraq, through assistance by the international community, inherits the activities of the SECI Center: 12 years of to expand appropriate drug treatment services operational activities, joint investigations, training throughout their respective countries. sessions and strategic analysis covering the most sensitive criminal areas in the South-Eastern European region. 731. The Board notes with satisfaction that some countries in West Asia, such as Jordan and Lebanon, took 735. Detections of laboratories used for the illicit measures to strengthen their treatment and rehabilitation manufacture of amphetamines have increased, and the centres. In particular, the involvement of both the private increased manufacturing capacity of some of these sites and public medical care sectors in order to reach the has been noted. The trend of methamphetamine maximum number of drug abusers. In Lebanon, for replacing amphetamine in Northern and Western Europe example, drug addicts are treated in hospitals and by appears to be continuing, and the quantity of some non-governmental organizations. A study cited methamphetamine seized in Northern Europe has by the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health on drug increased significantly. addicts treated in hospitals and by non-governmental organizations in 2011 showed that a total of 1,411 patients 2. Regional were receiving treatment (1,206 males and 205 females). 736. In November 2011, a dialogue on drugs was held Almost 22 per cent of the patients are treated for abuse of between the European Union and the Russian Federation tranquillizers, followed by alcohol (16 per cent), cocaine, in Brussels. Also in November 2011, a regional ministerial amphetamine, cannabis oil, heroin and codeine, in conference on challenges and achievements related to descending order. In addition, among the patients, there regional and transnational cooperation in the fight against organized crime in South-Eastern Europe was held in Belgrade. The conference was attended by ministers of internal affairs and justice and public prosecutors from the region, as well as representatives of European Union member States and members of the European Commission. The participants agreed on the 732. Abuse of illicit drugs in Europe has stabilized in necessity of creating expert teams to monitor regional recent years, although at a high level. Yet the emergence of cooperation in criminal matters and judicial cooperation. new psychoactive substances, so-called “designer drugs” 737. In November 2011, the regional anti-drug initiative, or “legal highs”, poses a major challenge, which many Operation Channel, carried out annually under the Governments are addressing by placing individual auspices of the Collective Security Treaty Organization substances or groups of substances under national control. (CSTO), involved competent law enforcement, Adding to the challenge is the pattern of polydrug abuse: customs authorities and financial intelligence units of the consumption of illicit drugs in combination with other CSTO member States. In the course of the operation, drugs, alcohol and non-controlled substances. In 2011, a __________________ significant increase in new cases of HIV infection based 33 All references to Kosovo in the present document should on a high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users was be understood to be in compliance with Security reported by Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD many tons of drugs and psychotropic substances were and its Member States and Mexico welcomed steps to seized, including 11.6 tons of opium, 17.4 tons of reactivate the agreement on the control of precursors. cannabis herb, 3.2 tons of cannabis resin and 871 kg of 742. In February and March 2012, the first meeting on drug policy cooperation in South-Eastern Europe and the 738. A high-level meeting of the Pompidou Group of Balkans, held in Dubrovnik, Croatia, focused on the Council of Europe in December 2011 decided to exchange of information and experience. The second such reinforce cooperation with the countries of Eastern and meeting, held in Zagreb in September 2012, focused on South-Eastern Europe, especially in the fields of rehabilitation and reintegration services. prevention and treatment, and adopted a policy paper on 743. In March 2012, a memorandum of understanding licit and illicit drugs and a strategic document setting was concluded in Brussels between INCB and the World out a political agreement regarding drugs. Also in Customs Organization. The agreement formalized the December 2011, the European Commission proposed the long-standing cooperation between the two bodies, with a establishment of a European border surveillance system view to enhancing international drug control efforts (EUROSUR) to enhance coordination among member within their respective mandates. States and prevent and combat serious crime, including 744. In May 2012, within the framework of the Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe, an 739. In December 2011, the Council of the European international conference on alcohol, drugs and Union adopted conclusions on new psychoactive prevention in the workplace, held in Strasbourg, France, substances, and in June 2012 it adopted conclusions on adopted a frame of reference for policies for preventing the new European Union drugs strategy for the period 2013-2020 to address polydrug use, the rapid 745. In May 2012, UNODC launched a new regional spread of new psychoactive substances, ensuring access to programme for South-Eastern Europe for the and addressing misuse of prescribed controlled period 2012-2015 on “Countering illicit trafficking and medications, the use of the Internet in the illicit organized crime for improved governance, justice and distribution of drugs, the diversion of precursors, the security”. The programme is aimed at combating illicit quality of demand reduction services and the high drug trafficking via the Balkan route and related incidence of blood-borne diseases. Combating synthetic problems, as well as at improving intraregional drugs and new psychoactive substances was identified by cooperation between countries along the Balkan route the Standing Committee on Operational Cooperation on and countries in West and Central Asia and Europe Internal Security (COSI) of the European Union as one of affected by heroin trafficking from Afghanistan. the Union’s priorities in combating organized crime. The European Commission was in the process of carrying out 746. The fourteenth High-level Meeting of the an impact assessment on a new instrument to replace Coordination and Cooperation Mechanism on Drugs Council decision 2005/387/JHA on information exchange, between the European Union and the Community of risk assessment and control of new psychoactive Latin American and Caribbean States, held in Brussels in substances and announced that it would propose stronger June 2012, expressed support for, inter alia, continued European Union legislation in that regard. A number of cooperation between the two regions in addressing the regional and interregional forums in 2012 have focused world drug problem, highlighting the need to address on the challenge of emerging substances of abuse. prevention, early intervention, treatment, rehabilitation, 740. In January 2012 in Brussels, the World Customs social reintegration and reduction of the negative health Organization held the first Global Forum on Combating and social consequences of drug abuse. Illicit Drug Trafficking and Related Threats, with 747. The third World Forum against Drugs, held in representatives of customs authorities from 65 countries, Stockholm in May 2012, focused on human rights, the as well as international and regional organizations. The right of children to be protected from illicit drugs, illicit Forum enabled an exchange of best practices in drug use and trafficking problems in Latin America, as combating trafficking in drugs and precursor chemicals well as on primary prevention. A joint statement was and associated money-laundering and corruption. signed at the Forum by the representatives of Italy, the 741. In February 2012, the seventh meeting of the Russian Federation, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the European Union-Mexico Joint Council established by the United States, reiterating their commitment to ensuring Economic Partnership, Political Coordination and the adequate availability of narcotic drugs and Cooperation Agreement between the European Union psychotropic substances for the relief of pain, treatment CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION of illness and research; preventing and reducing the use of at reducing the demand for such substances by providing those drugs for any other purpose and reducing the information about the associated risk and harms, consequences of such use; and calling for a balanced restricting supply and ensuring effective treatment and approach to the world drug problem, with a strengthened support for lasting recovery. international partnership. The second Congress of the 750. Many countries in the region are also placing World Federation against Drugs, also held in Stockholm individual substances or groups of substances under in May 2012, resulted in a statement highlighting the national control. For example, mephedrone has been need to support the international drug control brought under control by most member States of the conventions and to promote policies aimed at limiting the European Union, with the Czech Republic, Finland, harmful effects of drugs through prevention, law Greece, Latvia, Slovenia and Spain, as well as Switzerland, enforcement and treatment and recovery programmes. all placing it under control in 2011, and tapentadol was 3. National legislation, policy and action placed under national control in Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Latvia and Spain in 2011. 748. Many countries in the region have introduced 751. In May 2011, the first national survey on the use of legislation to address the challenges posed by the abuse of drugs and other addictive substances among the general new psychoactive substances. In Austria in January 2012, population in Croatia was initiated. In July 2011, the legislation entered into force that brought under control Government of Croatia adopted amendments to the Act substances or groups of substances that are not subject to on the Suppression of Drugs Abuse (OG 84/11), thus the 1961 or 1971 conventions and that have the potential enabling the introduction in the country of the unified for psychoactive effects, are likely to be abused and pose a prescription form used by physicians active in the potential health threat. Schengen area to prescribe medicine containing narcotic drugs for the personal use of travellers within that region 749. Cyprus introduced a generic system of classification for a maximum of 30 days. In October 2011, the Croatian in national drug control legislation in 2011. In Denmark, Parliament adopted a new penal code, which entered into legislation entered into force in July 2012 that introduced force on 1 January 2012. In the new penal code, the abuse the generic scheduling of drugs, including synthetic of narcotic drugs is punished according to the provisions cannabinoids. Finland amended the 2008 Narcotics Act in of two criminal acts covering the unauthorized June 2011 to enable the control of substances based on a possession and manufacture of, and trade in, drugs and risk assessment by the Finnish Medicines Agency, substances banned in sports. The new penal code also together with the police, customs authorities and the provides for the criminalization of growing plants and National Institute for Health and Welfare. In April 2012, fungi from which narcotic drugs can be obtained and of Hungary created a schedule C to existing legislation, on activities related to money-laundering. In the context of which a substance can be included after a formalized the process of adapting the Croatian drug demand rapid assessment has found that it affects the central reduction system to European Union standards, the nervous system and therefore poses as serious a threat to Government in 2011 initiated the creation of a database public health as the substances listed in the international for programmes on combating drug abuse in Croatia. The drug conventions, and that the substance has no purpose of the database is to consolidate information therapeutic use. Within one year of placement on the about all of the demand reduction activities that are being schedule, the risk of individual substances must be implemented at all levels in Croatia. assessed, resulting in either full control or removal from the schedule; compound groups remain on the schedule 752. In November 2011 in Denmark, the city council of as long as any substance in the group meets the Copenhagen decided that it would ask the national above-mentioned criteria. Following the enactment of Government for authorization to introduce an the revised drug law in Switzerland in July 2011, yearly experimental scheme concerning the legalization of trade reviews of new synthetic substances enable such in and use of cannabis; however, according to information substances to be brought under national control. provided by the Government, it had not been asked for “Temporary class drug orders” were introduced in the such an authorization and had indicated that such an Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 of the United Kingdom as at authorization would not be granted. In July 2012, an November 2011, enabling the control of a new amendment to the drug law was to come into effect that psychoactive substance for one year if the substance is would empower the Minister of Health to license, at the misused, likely to be misused or could have harmful request of municipal governments, “drug consumption effects. In addition, a new action plan to tackle rooms” and regulate their operation by municipal psychoactive substances, published in May 2012, is aimed authorities and private organizations with operational REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD agreements with the municipal authorities. The the provisions of the international drug control Government of Denmark has been informed of the conventions. position of the Board that consumption rooms are in 758. On 1 June 2012, measures to prohibit violation of the provisions of the international drug over-the-counter sales of medicines containing codeine or its salts became effective in the Russian Federation. 753. In May 2012, a code of conduct developed by the Since 1 June 2012, the sale of such medicines by Government of France and the chemical industry was pharmacies is allowed only with a doctor’s prescription. published, with the aim of facilitating the identification The increased controls are a result of the fact that and reporting of suspicious transactions of precursor these medicines are often used for the clandestine chemicals. 754. In August 2012, the National Substance Misuse 759. In November 2011, the Government of Serbia Strategy of Ireland was published, integrating strategies established within the Ministry of Health a commission for alcohol and drug abuse for the first time. In on psychoactive controlled substances, an interministerial January 2012 in Latvia, new procedures came into force committee responsible for providing expert advice to the for the treatment of addiction to alcohol, narcotics, Government on issues related to psychotropic substances, psychotropic substances, toxic substances and gambling, as well as for issuing licences for forensic laboratories. with redesigned rules for opioid substitution treatment 760. In 2012, the Government of Ukraine adopted the that allow the provision of substitution treatment and for National Drug Strategy through 2020. The strategy such treatment to be offered beyond the capital city defines administrative, social, medical, legal, educational, informational and other measures aimed at preventing 755. In December 2011, the parliament of Lithuania non-medical use of drugs, reducing the supply and adopted a political resolution expressing grave concern demand of illegal drugs and facilitating the availability of about new psychoactive substances and calling for further drugs for medical and scientific use. preventive and improved control measures. Also in 761. In May 2012 in the United Kingdom, the National December 2011, a Government order set out conditions Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence released for the storage of precursor chemicals in order to comply clinical guidelines for England and Wales for the prescribing of strong opioids for the treatment of pain for 756. In June 2012, the Republic of Moldova became the adults in palliative care, noting that published evidence thirty-seventh member of the Pompidou Group following suggested that pain resulting from advanced disease, the adoption of Law No. 75. Currently, the Pompidou especially cancer, remained undertreated and expressing Group collaborates with the Republic of Moldova in the the goal of helping to improve pain management and fields of drug treatment in prisons, drug prevention for patient safety. youth and the development of systems to improve drug 4. Cultivation, production, manufacture and 757. In January 2012, amendments to the national framework of the Netherlands for policy related to so-called “coffee shops” as contained in the Opium Act Instructions came into force, with the aim of reducing the 762. The illicit cultivation of cannabis plant in Western size of such sites, facilitating control and combating drug and Central Europe, especially indoor cultivation and tourism. Access to “coffee shops” is to be restricted to cultivation on a commercial scale, has continued to residents of the Netherlands aged 18 years or older who increase. The involvement of criminal groups in illicit are members of a “coffee shop”, with membership to each cannabis cultivation, as reported by Bulgaria, Denmark, site limited to 2,000 individuals per calendar year. Germany, France, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, The restrictions were applied in three southern Sweden and the United Kingdom, is a growing concern. states (Limburg, North Brabant and Zeeland) as from In a study by EMCDDA of 30 countries in Europe, May 2012, and were to be implemented nationwide from 16 countries indicated that indoor cultivation was the January 2013. The amendments also increase the dominant method of illicit cultivation, while the Czech minimum distance between “coffee shops” and secondary Republic, France, Germany, Latvia, Sweden and the schools and secondary vocational institutions. While the United Kingdom reported increases in indoor cultivation Board has taken note of this development, its position in recent years and France reported that three quarters of continues to be that such “coffee shops” are in violation of cases of illicit cultivation of cannabis plant involved CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION indoor cultivation. Hydroponic cultivation was noted by with the Republic of Moldova, and estimated the area 12 countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Ireland, Greece, under illicit cultivation at 920 ha in 2010. Albania, Hungary, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Romania, another important producer of cannabis herb, has Slovenia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom) and was implemented law enforcement actions against cannabis reported to have increased in the Czech Republic and growers and traffickers, and reported a lower estimate of Slovakia. In the United Kingdom, detections of sites of production capacity; areas of illicit cannabis plant illicit cultivation of cannabis have continued to increase, cultivation and the production of cannabis further coupled with a reduction in the size and scale of decreased as a result of joint operations by national law commercial illicit cultivation sites. Similarly, in Finland, enforcement institutions. During 2011, 89 cases of small-scale cultivation at the household level is cannabis cultivation were recorded and 21,267 cannabis increasing. Slovenia reported an increase in indoor plants were destroyed. In addition, 79 people were cultivation, while at the same time it noted a decrease in arrested and placed under investigation for charges outdoor cultivation. In Bulgaria, an increase in the indoor related to the illicit cultivation of cannabis. cultivation of cannabis plant was reported in 2011. 765. There were no significant drug production cases So-called “grow shops”, retail outlets selling products for reported by Croatia, with only a small number of cases of the indoor cultivation of plants, have been identified as a cannabis plant cultivation and intensive indoor potential indicator of increases in illicit domestic cultivation by smaller criminal groups reported. Cannabis production of cannabis, especially indoors. According to available on the Croatian market originates in Albania EMCDDA, the existence of such outlets in 2009 was and is smuggled by organized criminal groups through reported by 15 countries in Western and Central Europe, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina into Croatia seven of which noted the existence of information on and on to Western Europe along the Balkan route. In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, small-scale 763. Trafficking of cannabis herb continues at significant cultivation of cannabis, mainly for domestic use, is the levels in Eastern and Central Europe. Cannabis herb is only known illegal production of drugs. In the first usually trafficked from the former Yugoslav Republic of six months of 2011, the Government of the former Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo to Montenegro and Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia detected 222 crimes southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. There is evidence that committed in the area of “illegal production and trade of cannabis herb produced in the region is playing an narcotic drugs”. The biggest cannabis seizure reported increasingly important role in the supply chain of involved 105 kg smuggled from Albania into the former European cannabis markets. While Albania has reported a Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on 11 June 2011. decrease in seizures of locally produced cannabis herb, 766. Seizures of cannabis resin in Western and Central increases in cannabis plant cultivation have been reported Europe are continuing to decrease, with seizures of by Bulgaria and Ukraine. Seizures of cannabis resin 534 tons in Western and Central Europe in 2010, which is imported from beyond the region continue to decline, almost half the peak amount of 1,078 tons in 2004, and and seizures of cannabis herb remain relatively stable, the number of seizures dropping to the lowest level since although at a significantly lower level than a decade ago. 2003. In Spain, the country with the greatest amount of The number of cannabis plants seized, however, increased cannabis resin seized by customs authorities globally, dramatically between 2004 and 2010. While there is an seizures decreased in 2010 for a second consecutive year, overall stable or decreasing trend in the abuse of cannabis to the lowest level recorded since 1997. Seizures by in the region, 1 per cent of European adults may be using customs authorities of cannabis resin in Western Europe cannabis on a daily or almost-daily basis, and 4 per cent decreased from 178 tons in 2010 to 147 tons in 2011. In of school students aged 15 or 16 report having abused Finland, however, a record quantity of cannabis resin was cannabis at least once a week, while in France and seized in 2011; most of it was en route to the Russian Monaco more than one in every five students in that age Federation. The relative importance of Morocco as a group reported using cannabis in the past month. source of cannabis resin for Europe, the world’s largest Treatment demand owing to the abuse of cannabis is illicit market for the substance, is reportedly appearing to increasing; between 2004 and 2009, the number of people decrease, with the importance of resin from other entering treatment for the first time whose primary drug countries, such as Afghanistan, India, Lebanon and of abuse was cannabis increased by 40 per cent in Pakistan, appearing to increase. Nevertheless, Morocco was identified as the source country for almost three 764. Ukraine has reported the eradication of large areas quarters of the cannabis resin seized in Western Europe of illicit cultivation of cannabis plant close to its border by customs authorities in 2011. The volume of cannabis REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD resin seized by customs authorities in Eastern and Central Central Europe, followed by the Netherlands (10 tons). European countries has also dropped significantly, The quantity of cocaine seized by customs authorities in reaching 95 kg in four seizure cases in 2011, compared Western Europe remained relatively stable at about 34 to with 814 kg in 44 seizure cases in 2010. The majority of 37 tons per year between 2009 and 2011, representing the seizures were carried out on board trains coming almost half of global seizures of cocaine by customs from Azerbaijan, Tajikistan or Ukraine. The largest authorities. In Romania, the total amount of cocaine seizure was reported by Belarus: 131 kg of cannabis resin seized in 2011 was more than 161 kg, approximately seized at the land border with Latvia. 63 times the quantity seized in 2010 (2.6 kg). The amount seized in 2011 was mainly the result of one large seizure 767. The number of seizures of cannabis herb in Western (157.5 kg) made in Constanta harbour. and Central Europe has increased since 2001, doubling between 2005 and 2009 and, in 2010, exceeding seizures 770. Cocaine traffickers use ports in Croatia and Greece of cannabis resin for the first time. The amount of for shipments to Eastern Europe. From there, cocaine is cannabis herb seized in Western and Central Europe has moved to smaller harbours in Montenegro and Albania, remained at about 60 tons since 2004 (62 tons in 2010), from which it is transported by road to Kosovo and then half the peak level of 124 tons in 2002. Following a Serbia before reaching Bosnia and Herzegovina and decrease in seizures by customs authorities of cannabis Western European markets. The abuse of cocaine in herb in Western Europe from 2009 to 2010, the total Western and Central Europe remains stable, although amount seized more than doubled from 8.8 tons in 2010 with a high annual prevalence of 1.2 per cent. to 17.7 tons in 2011. According to UNODC, over the 771. Ships are still the main mode of transportation for period 2001-2010, seizures of cannabis herb by weight cocaine trafficked to Western Europe, representing almost decreased in Western Europe yet increased in Northern, 80 per cent of the quantity seized by customs authorities Central and Eastern Europe. The volume of cannabis herb in 2011; however, seizures by customs authorities at interceptions made in Eastern and Central Europe in airports accounted for 15 per cent of the quantity seized 2011 was more than double that of 2010, totalling 2.7 tons in Western Europe. Cocaine is increasingly trafficked to in 74 seizure cases. According to the World Customs Slovenia via container from Latin America, with Organization, Albania remains an important source shipments also arriving at ports on the Adriatic Sea and country for cannabis herb seized in Eastern and Central then entering Slovenia via the western Balkans. Of the Europe, accounting for a total volume of 2,194 kg, more cocaine seized by customs authorities in 2011 in Western than 80 per cent of the total amount seized in 2011. Europe, 80 per cent was identified as having originated in Almost all of the seizures of cannabis herb in Eastern and Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Central Europe were made while the cannabis herb was Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of). In 2010, 768. Seizures of cannabis plants have continued to cocaine deliveries to the Russian Federation arrived increase in Europe since 2004, from 1.7 million plants in mainly from Ecuador. This trend continued in 2011, with 2004 to about 30 million plants in 2010, with seizures of two seizures carried out at the Saint Petersburg seaport, of plants totalling 42 tons in 2008 and 35 tons in 2010, most 20.6 kg and 4.5 kg of cocaine arriving from Ecuador. of which was accounted for by Spain (27 tons) and Since 2009, the Caribbean region has become increasingly Bulgaria (4 tons). In the United Kingdom (England and important in the trafficking of cocaine shipments Wales), the number of seizures involving plants increased destined for Europe. For example, the Dominican by 12 per cent, despite a decrease in the number of plants Republic was identified as the origin of 273 shipments, seized. In Germany, while seizures of cannabis resin and amounting to 3.5 tons, of cocaine seized by customs cannabis herb both decreased by almost 20 per cent from authorities in Western Europe in 2011. The significant 2010 to 2011, seizures of plants increased by almost a increase, of about 50 per cent, in French seizures of third. cocaine in 2011 (almost 11 tons) compared with 2009 and 2010 was the result of seizures in the Caribbean. In 769. While the amount of cocaine seized in Western and January 2012, 1.2 tons of cocaine destined for the Central Europe has declined in recent years, there are European market were seized on two vessels off the coast some signs of stabilization. After increasing from about of Martinique. 50 tons in 2009 to about 60 tons in 2010, seizures of cocaine in Western and Central Europe remained at about 772. Eastern Europe’s biggest drug control problem half the peak amount of 120 tons in 2006. Spain continues to be the illicit trafficking of heroin and opiates continued to be the country reporting the largest quantity originating in Afghanistan. Turkey continues to be a main seized (25 tons), almost half the total for Western and corridor for heroin trafficking to Europe. Heroin also CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION continues to be trafficked through Central Asia into the Bulgarian customs authorities alone made 60 per cent of Russian Federation along the northern branch of the the seizures in Eastern and Central Europe and over so-called “silk route” (via Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, 85 per cent of the total volume seized. The two largest Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), both for seizures were made in Bulgaria, the first at the border domestic use and for trafficking onward to Western with Turkey at the Kapitan Andreevo checkpoint, where European countries. customs authorities discovered 96 kg of heroin coming 773. In 2010, about 6 tons of heroin were seized in from Turkey. The second seizure was made at the border Western and Central Europe, a decrease from the with Romania, at the Ruse checkpoint, where customs approximately 8-9 tons seized annually between 2005 authorities discovered 43 kg of heroin bound for the and 2009, with the highest quantities of seizures made in Netherlands in a lorry load. Substantial seizures of heroin France and Italy (each approximately one ton) and with were also reported by the customs authorities of the the decline affected by decreases in amounts seized in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, followed by Bulgaria and the United Kingdom. Customs seizures those of Ukraine, Serbia and Albania with significantly of heroin in Western Europe decreased from 1.9 tons smaller amounts. The Russian Federation reported in 2009 to 1.0 ton in 2011. A decline in the availability of 101 seizures by customs authorities in 2011, with a total heroin on the illicit drug market was observed in some of 138 kg of heroin. European countries between 2010 and 2011. This 776. Western Europe accounted for only a small portion observation was supported by data from Ireland (about 3 per cent) of the global seizures of opium by indicating that the prevalence of Drug Treatment Centre customs authorities in 2011; Turkey was identified as the Board laboratory samples testing positive for heroin source country in half of the shipments. A total of marker 6-acetylmorphine was at its lowest level in 112 tons of opium were seized in Germany in 2011, December 2010, slowly increasing at the beginning of an increase of over 800 per cent compared with 2010 2011. Samples testing positive for benzodiazepine peaked (12.3 tons). Buprenorphine, an opioid controlled under in December 2010, coinciding with the shortage of the 1971 Convention, is trafficked on a large scale from heroin, followed by an ongoing increase, indicating either France to Finland, where seizures increased in 2011, while substitution or “cutting” of heroin with benzodiazepines. seizures of the substance between Finland and Estonia 774. In 2010, a decrease in seizures of heroin was decreased. In Estonia, the trafficking of heroin and other recorded in most of the countries (except the Islamic opiates is reported to be in decline. In Latvia in 2011, Republic of Iran) along the main Balkan trafficking route, two illegal laboratories for the manufacture of methadone from Afghanistan through South-Eastern Europe to were detected; the destination of the methadone Western and Central Europe, although large quantities of produced was believed to be the Russian Federation. heroin continued to be trafficked along that route. 777. Little progress was made in the past year in tackling In 2011, nearly two thirds of the heroin seized at the drug trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a country borders of the United Kingdom had been trafficked which continues to be a transit corridor for international directly from Pakistan (in air freight and containers). At trafficking of narcotics. Organized crime groups linked the same time, there was a reduction in the amount of with drug trafficking continued to operate through the heroin being trafficked to the United Kingdom via country’s territory. Local illicit drug consumption Turkey. According to the World Customs Organization, remained relatively low compared with other European the decreasing trend since 2009 in the amount of heroin countries. Bosnia and Herzegovina remains at an early seized in Eastern and Central Europe continued; in 2011 stage in the fight against drug trafficking, as well as in the total amount of heroin seized was 23 per cent of the taking effective action on reducing drug demand. Effective, sustainable and institutionalized mechanisms 775. Amounts of heroin seized by customs authorities for cooperation and strategic coordination between along the traditional Balkan route (Turkey, Romania, different law enforcement agencies are still being Hungary and Austria) were greater than along the developed, and the performance of law enforcement southern Balkan route (to Italy via Albania, the former agencies in the fight against drug trafficking remains Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia or Greece), with the use uneven. The Board urges the Government of Bosnia and of the “silk route” continuing to be significant. In Herzegovina to establish an office to coordinate national Romania, the quantity of heroin seized decreased by drug control activities as a matter of priority and to almost 90 per cent, from 108 kg in 2010 to 12 kg in 2011. continue its efforts to strengthen drug control in both of REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD its constituent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and increase in the number of detections of such facilities in Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. Austria and Bulgaria. The number of seizures and the quantity of methamphetamine seized in Western and Central Europe have continued to increase since 2001; there were about 7,300 seizures and 500 kg each year 778. Customs seizures of amphetamines in Western in 2009 and 2010, an increase from almost 300 kg in 2008, Europe tripled from 615 kg in 2010 to 1,827 kg in 2011, mainly owing to increases in 2009 in Sweden and Norway, although they were still lower than in 2009 (3,028 kg). the main countries for seizures of methamphetamine. Europe continues to account for the majority of Customs seizures of methamphetamine fell by more than laboratories seized worldwide for illicitly manufacturing 50 per cent in 2011 to 64 kg, from 142 kg seized in 2010, substances in the amphetamine group; the number of after having increased significantly from 2009 (30 kg). amphetamine laboratories seized in Europe increased Thailand continued to be the main source country for from 43 in 2009 to 62 in 2010. It has been reported that methamphetamine seized by customs authorities in the capacity of amphetamine manufacture in the Western Europe in 2011 (28 out of a total of 67 seizures). Netherlands and Belgium may have increased by a factor African countries were also significant source countries of five to six, and in Poland by 30 to 160 per cent. The in that regard, although to a lesser degree than in 2010. quantity of amphetamine powder seized in Western and Benin, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa together Central Europe decreased from a peak of 8 tons in 2007 accounted for 10 per cent of the quantity seized. to 5 tons in 2010, with Germany accounting for almost a 780. After several years of decline, especially in 2009, quarter of the amount seized, followed by the United MDMA (“ecstasy”) has made a possible resurgence in Kingdom, the Netherlands and Poland. The number of Europe since mid-2010, according to Europol. Seizures of amphetamine tablets seized in Western and Central “ecstasy”-group substances more than doubled, from Europe, however, doubled from 170,000 in 2008 to 595 kg in 2009 to 1.3 tons in 2010. In Romania, the 345,000 in 2010, with 96 per cent of those seizures taking number of tablets seized in 2011 was approximately place in Spain. Most amphetamine seized in Europe is 2.5 times the number seized during the previous year. manufactured in (in descending order of significance) the No “ecstasy” laboratories were reported to UNODC as Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, Bulgaria and Turkey, and having been seized in Europe in 2010, yet several were the Netherlands remains the main source or distribution detected in 2011. It has been suggested that this trend is country for the majority of amphetamine consignments possibly connected to the emergence of slightly modified seized in the Central and Eastern European region (31 kg precursor chemicals that are not controlled at the out of a total of 57 kg). The volume of amphetamines international level. EMCDDA reports increasing seized in Central and Eastern European countries availability of MDMA in “ecstasy” tablets, after having decreased significantly in 2011 compared with 2010, decreased in recent years, with production methods falling to 57 kg. Customs authorities in Poland apparently now based increasingly on safrole or on seized a total of 49 kg, far ahead of the quantity of chemicals such as 3,4-MDP-2-P-glycidate, which are amphetamine-type stimulants seized in Ukraine (3 kg) structurally similar to the controlled precursors and Bulgaria (2 kg). The largest seizure of amphetamines traditionally used in the illicit manufacture of “ecstasy”. (31 kg) was made in Olszyna, Poland, close to the In 2010, 3 million “ecstasy” tablets were seized in German border, in a private vehicle coming from the Western and Central Europe, a 50-per-cent increase Netherlands. Five seizures of amphetamines, with a total compared with 2009 but significantly less than the weight of 11 kg, were made in 2011 by the customs peak of almost 23 million tablets in 2002. France, authorities of Belarus and the Russian Federation. the Netherlands and Spain each accounted for about one 779. Methamphetamine has been reported as fifth of tablets seized, followed by Germany, Poland and increasingly present in the illicit amphetamine market in the United Kingdom. In Germany, the amount of some Nordic and Baltic countries, although amphetamine “ecstasy” tablets seized more than doubled from 2010 to is far more commonly available in Europe. In Poland, 2011. Customs seizures of MDMA (“ecstasy”) in Western which saw a decrease in 2011 in illicit amphetamine Europe increased from 109 kg in 2009 to 206 kg in 2010 laboratories, there was some increase in the number of and to 466 kg in 2011, with over half of the total amount illicit methamphetamine laboratories detected; that was seized by French customs authorities. The World Customs also the case in 2011 in the Czech Republic. The number Organization reported only five seizures of “ecstasy” of illicit methamphetamine laboratories seized in Europe made in 2011 in Eastern and Central Europe (three by decreased from 361 in 2009 to 328 in 2010. The majority Poland, one by Serbia and one by Estonia), totalling of them (307) were seized in the Czech Republic, with an 21 kg. The Netherlands was identified as the main source CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION country for illicit shipments of “ecstasy” to other products, available from 128 and 110 online sites, European countries, representing about 80 per cent of the respectively. A 2011/12 study in England and Wales found total amount seized by customs authorities in 2011. that 0.9 per cent of adult respondents had purchased drugs over the Internet the most recent time they had taken drugs, compared with 0.7 per cent the 781. Non-controlled substances are continuing to replace previous year. controlled precursor chemicals, through masking or 784. Mephedrone accounts for an increasing proportion substitution, although this was rare in Europe before of the illicit drug market in some European countries. 2010. Europol reported several large seizures between Although not under international control, mephedrone 2009 and 2011 of alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) has been placed under control in most European Union consignments and the dismantling of laboratories for the member States, yet it continued to be offered for sale over conversion of APAAN into 1-phenyl-2-propanone the Internet, although on fewer sites and at higher prices. (P-2-P), a precursor chemical used in the illicit In 2010/11 in the United Kingdom, over 120 websites manufacture of amphetamine and methamphetamine. In advertising mephedrone and naphyrone for sale were addition to the illicit manufacture of P-2-P in Europe, closed down; those substances had been classified trafficking of the substance continues. nationally as class B drugs in 2010. In Hungary, mephedrone was the most frequently seized synthetic (d) Substances not under international control substance in 2010, and increasing prevalence of injection of mephedrone and other cathinones was reported in the 782. Illicit manufacture, trafficking and abuse of new period 2010/11. In the United Kingdom, 286 of the psychoactive substances continue to pose a serious threat 2,564 seizures made in Northern Ireland in 2010/11 were in Western and Central Europe. In 2011, a record 49 new of mephedrone, considerably more than those of psychoactive substances were reported to the European amphetamines (128 seizures) and “ecstasy” (150 seizures) Union early warning system. All of the substances and only slightly fewer than seizures of cocaine identified were synthetic; they included 23 synthetic (304 seizures). In England and Wales in the cannabinoids and 8 synthetic cathinones. Five new period 2010/11 (both before and after the national control chemical families of synthetic cannabinoids were of mephedrone), annual prevalence of mephedrone abuse detected; those substances make up the largest group among people between the ages of 16 and 59 was 1.4 per monitored through the early warning system. Seven cent, similar to “ecstasy” abuse and representing the substances that were medicines, metabolites or precursors third-most-abused drug within that age group. Among of medicines were also identified. In 2011, public health those aged 16-24, it was as frequently abused as cocaine warnings were issued through the European Union (4.4 per cent). In 2011, there was a large increase in the system about adverse health effects related to a number of detection of laboratories illicitly manufacturing substances. In the United Kingdom, 19 per cent of mephedrone in Poland. Internet test purchases of new psychoactive substances, 785. Customs seizures of khat continued to increase sold as “plant food” or “research chemicals”, contained a in Western Europe, from 49 tons in 2010 to almost substance under national control (20 per cent, 18 per cent 54 tons in 2011, with 95 per cent of the seizures and 22 per cent of samples contained, respectively, in Germany (23.8 tons), Sweden (12.8 tons), Norway cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids or piperazines). (8.3 tons) and Denmark (6.6 tons). A large increase in 783. The number of Internet-based retail sites selling seizures of khat (1.4 tons) was reported in Malta in 2011. psychoactive products and shipping to European Union In 2012, the Government of the Netherlands placed khat member States increased from 170 in January 2010 to under national control in List II of the Opium Act. 314 in January 2011 and 690 in January 2012. About a third of them were hosted on servers based in the United States, and a fifth of them were hosted on servers based in 786. With an average annual prevalence of 5.2 per cent, the United Kingdom. About two thirds of the sites cannabis is still the most commonly abused drug in identified had some type of disclaimer or product Europe, followed by cocaine, amphetamine-type warning, and there was an increasing use of measures to stimulants and opioids (specifically heroin). Experts in restrict access to such sites and to protect the identity of numerous countries in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe buyers and sellers. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and have reported an increasing trend in the abuse of Salvia divinorum were the two most frequently identified cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, including REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD “ecstasy”, while the abuse of opioids and cocaine is 788. The level of abuse of cocaine remains relatively reported as stable. Annual prevalence of cannabis in stable, with an average annual prevalence in Western and Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is estimated at 2.6 per Central Europe among adults of 1.2 per cent, and a range cent, that of opioids at 1.2 per cent and that of opiates at of 0.1 per cent to 2.7 per cent (2.1 per cent among people 0.8 per cent. Annual prevalence of abuse of cocaine in aged 15-34). A decrease in annual prevalence of abuse of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is estimated at cocaine among adults has been seen over the past few between 0.1 and 0.3 per cent of the population, abuse of years in countries with high prevalence rates, such as amphetamine-type stimulants at between 0.2 and 0.5 per Denmark, Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom. In cent and abuse of “ecstasy” between 0.5 and 0.6 per cent. France, however, the annual prevalence of cocaine abuse 787. In the European Union, annual prevalence of abuse among adults has continued to increase, from 0.3 per cent of cannabis among adults is 6.7 per cent, ranging from in 2000 to 0.9 per cent in 2010, while lifetime prevalence 0.3 per cent to 14.3 per cent depending on the country. among 17-year-olds decreased to 3 per cent in 2011 from On average, 3.6 per cent of adults in Western and Central 3.3 per cent in 2008, after having increased from 0.9 per Europe abused cannabis in the preceding month, with the cent in 2000. highest levels reported in Spain (7.6 per cent) and Italy (6.9 per cent). The stable or decreasing trend in cannabis 789. The abuse of opioids in Western and Central abuse in Western and Central Europe appears to be Europe is reported to be stable, at an estimated average continuing in general,34 especially among young adults, annual prevalence of 0.4 per cent. Heroin abuse in although still at a high level, and an estimated 1 per cent Europe may be declining or stabilizing, while the abuse of all European adults may be using cannabis on a daily of synthetic and semi-synthetic opioids appears to or almost-daily basis. Annual prevalence of cannabis be increasing in some countries. Synthetic and abuse among younger adults (15-24 years old) in Western semi-synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and and Central Europe averages 15.2 per cent, with a range buprenorphine may be displacing heroin in some from 0.9 per cent to 22.3 per cent. With monthly countries in Northern and Central Europe, notably prevalence averaging 8 per cent, more than one in Estonia and Finland. Opioids account for almost half 10 people between the ages of 15 and 24 in France of new treatment cases and cause the majority of (11.8 per cent) and Italy (11 per cent), and almost one in drug-related deaths in the region; 5 per cent of those five in Spain (17.2 per cent) reported abuse of cannabis entering treatment specified opioids other than heroin as within the previous month. A comparison of WHO the primary drug of abuse. In Estonia, which according to Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys EMCDDA has the highest per capita level of drug-related for 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 indicates an overall stable deaths in the European Union, three quarters of those or decreasing trend in most countries in Europe entering treatment reported fentanyl as the primary drug in lifetime prevalence of cannabis abuse among of abuse, and in Finland more than half of those entering students aged 15 and 16, yet an increasing trend in treatment cited buprenorphine as the primary drug of 30-day prevalence. In Switzerland, 10.4 per cent of youth abuse. and young adults (13-29 years old) had consumed cannabis in the previous six months, a decrease from 790. The abuse of amphetamines in Western and Central 11.1 per cent in 2007 and 13.3 per cent in 2004, while Europe remains stable, with an average annual prevalence the prevalence of daily or almost-daily abuse remained among adults of 0.5 per cent and a range of between 0 and stable at about 1 per cent over the period 2007-2010. 1.1 per cent. Among people aged 15-34, the average “Youth in Europe”, a research-based drug abuse annual prevalence of amphetamine abuse was 1.1 per prevention programme initiated by European Cities cent, double that of the general population. In many against Drugs, published findings indicating a decrease in countries, especially in Northern, Central and Eastern lifetime prevalence of cannabis abuse among young Europe, amphetamine is the most abused stimulant and, people (15-16 years of age) in Iceland, from 17 per cent in many of those countries, it is the second-most-abused in 1998 to 3 per cent in 2011. In Germany, annual illicit drug, after cannabis. Annual prevalence of prevalence of cannabis abuse among young people amphetamine abuse among those aged 15-34 has aged 12-17 years decreased from 9.2 per cent in 2001 to decreased in the United Kingdom, from 6.2 per cent 4.6 per cent in 2011, yet remained relatively constant in 1998 to 1.8 per cent in 2009/10, and in Denmark, among those aged 18-25 at about 13.5 per cent in 2011. from 3.1 per cent in 2000 to 2 per cent in 2010. Methamphetamine is increasingly available in countries in Northern and Western Europe, with increasing 34 Poland, however, reported a large increase in cannabis levels of abuse reported in Germany, Norway and CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION other Scandinavian countries; in Lithuania, cent of students in Croatia, and one in 10 students in methamphetamine has become the most commonly Latvia and Slovenia, had used inhalants at the age of 13. abused amphetamine-type stimulant. Levels of “ecstasy” Annual and lifetime prevalence of cannabis abuse were abuse in Europe have been stable in recent years, with an fairly stable at 13 per cent and 17 per cent, respectively. average annual prevalence of 0.8 per cent, yet there are The largest increases in annual prevalence were seen in indications of a possible resurgence. France (from 24 to 35 per cent) and Monaco (from 21 to 33 per cent), and large increases were also seen in Poland 791. According to EMCDDA, although the levels of abuse of new psychoactive substances are not substantial, (from 12 to 19 per cent) and Portugal (from 10 to 16 per there is a potential for an increase. In Ireland in 2010/11, cent). In France and Monaco, more than one in five the annual prevalence of abuse of new psychoactive students (24 per cent and 21 per cent, respectively) substances was 4 per cent among adults and 10 per cent reported having used cannabis in the past 30 days, among younger adults (aged 15-24). In Poland, annual followed by the Czech Republic and Spain (both 15 per prevalence among students aged 18-19 of abuse of cent). Of students surveyed, 4 per cent had abused so-called “legal highs” increased from 2.6 per cent in 2008 cannabis at least once a week during the survey period. to 7.1 per cent in 2011; monthly prevalence was 2.5 per The survey found that the lifetime prevalence among cent. In the United Kingdom, there were increases in students of non-prescription use of tranquillizers or hospital admissions and medical appointments owing to sedatives remained relatively stable between 1995 and new psychoactive substances, as well as reports of health 2011, at about 7 to 8 per cent. problems caused by the regular use of such substances. 793. The most frequently cited substances of abuse for While overall drug-related deaths in the United Kingdom those entering treatment in Western and Central Europe fell by 14 per cent from 2009 to 2010, deaths caused by were opioids (48 per cent), cannabis (25 per cent), emerging substances of abuse increased significantly, cocaine (15 per cent) and stimulants other than cocaine from 6 cases in 2008 to 44 cases in 2009. In England and (6 per cent). The most frequently reported other drug of Wales in 2011/12, annual prevalence of abuse among abuse was cannabis. Between 2004 and 2009, the number adults of mephedrone was 1.1 per cent, a decrease from of people entering treatment for the first time whose 1.4 per cent the previous year. Among younger adults primary drug of abuse was cannabis increased by 40 per (aged 16-24), the annual prevalence was 3.3 per cent, the cent in 18 European countries. Amphetamine was same as for “ecstasy”, which nevertheless represents a reported as the primary drug of abuse in 5 per decrease from 4.4 per cent in 2010/11. In Italy, a large cent of new treatment cases in Europe in 2009; increase was seen in 2010 in the abuse of tranquillizers however, amphetamine accounted for a much larger and sedatives, while Spain saw a large decrease in the proportion of new treatment cases in Sweden (28 per abuse of tranquillizers and sedatives. In the United cent), Poland (25 per cent) and Finland (17 per cent). Kingdom, in Northern Ireland, the abuse of Methamphetamine was the primary drug of abuse reported for almost one third of new treatment cases in 792. The European School Project on Alcohol and the Czech Republic and almost two thirds of such cases in Slovakia, and has increased during the past decade. In Other Drugs 2011 survey of students aged 15-16 years in Ireland from 2005 to 2010, the number of new treatment 37 countries found that lifetime prevalence of abuse of cases increased by over 50 per cent and, while the illicit drugs was 18 per cent in 2011, an increase from proportion of treatment requests involving opiates, 11 per cent in 1995 but a level that has been stable mainly heroin, fell slightly in 2009/10, the number of since 2007. Significant decreases in lifetime prevalence of cases involving cannabis as the primary drug of abuse abuse of illicit drugs were seen in Ireland, from 37 per increased by over 80 per cent from 2005 to 2010, with cent in 1995 to 19 per cent in 2011, and in the United cannabis overtaking heroin to become the most common Kingdom, from 42 per cent in 1995 to 29 per cent in 2007, primary drug of abuse in new treatment cases in 2010. while the largest increase — a 9-per-cent increase — was New substances of abuse were reported as a main recorded in Monaco. An age of onset of abuse of 13 years problem substance for the first time in Ireland in 2009 or younger was reported on average by 4 per cent of (17 cases), increasing to 213 cases in 2010, which respondents for inhalants, 3 per cent for cannabis and exceeded the number of cases reported for between 1 and 2 per cent for non-prescription amphetamines, “ecstasy” and inhalants combined. In the tranquillizers or sedatives, amphetamines or “ecstasy”. United Kingdom, in England, the number of The survey found that 8 per cent of students in France people under the age of 18 being treated primarily for had tried cannabis by the age of 13 years, and that 15 per abuse of heroin and cocaine decreased by 33 per cent REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS CONTROL BOARD and 23 per cent, respectively, between 2009/10 796. The most easily available and therefore the most and 2010/11; similarly, the number of young adults commonly abused drug in the Russian Federation is (aged 18-25) entering treatment because of abuse of cannabis, which is smuggled mainly from Central Asia heroin and/or crack cocaine fell by more than 50 per cent but also produced locally. In addition, the current between 2005/06 and 2010/11. Nevertheless, the number drug abuse situation is characterized by large-scale of young people under the age of 18 being treated non-medical consumption of heroin, desomorphine, primarily for abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Ministry (excluding “ecstasy”) increased by 150 per cent between of Health of the Russian Federation reported about half a 2009/10 and 2010/11, owing to the placement of million officially registered drug-dependent persons. mephedrone under national control in 2010. Over Recent trends include the replacement of heroin by less half (58 per cent)35 of young people under the age expensive and more readily available drugs, such as of 18 accessing treatment in England for substance abuse, acetylated opium (produced from poppy straw and often including alcohol abuse, cited cannabis as the primary disguised as food poppy) and desomorphine derived from drug of abuse, although there was a slight reduction in the licit codeine-based medications. number of cases compared with the previous year. 797. According to the Federal Drug Control Service, the 794. In Belarus, by December 2011, 12,967 people had number of desomorphine users in the Russian Federation been registered on the Narcological Register as having a is growing. Desomorphine consumption increased drug dependence problem. Of those, 2,574 of them were dramatically from the level of five years earlier: whereas registered for the first time in 2011 (2,274 were registered in 2006 only just over 2 kg of the drug was consumed, in 2010). Opiates were the most abused drug among in 2011 the figure was nearly 100 kg. The mortality rate registered drug users in Belarus, and opiate abuse from desomorphine abuse among drug addicts — mostly accounted for 62.8 per cent of newly registered persons. young people — is beginning to rival that from heroin. In 2011, the majority of registered drug abusers in Belarus It is estimated that, over the past two years, between used homemade opium produced either from poppy 5,000 and 7,000 people have died from desomorphine. straw or seeds. Among those newly registered, there were In some areas of the country, up to 90 per cent of more cases of pharmaceutical morphine misuse and fewer people identified as drug dependant for the first time cases of heroin abuse compared with 2010. The number used desomorphine. of registered persons abusing opiates increased by 6.5 per cent in 2011, the number of cannabinoid abusers 798. The number of drug-induced deaths (estimated increased by 8.1 per cent, and the number of persons that at 7,237) in Europe in 2010 remained stable, as did the abused sedatives and tranquillizers increased by 5.7 per number of deaths from drug overdose. Opioids were cent. In 2011, 3.6 per cent of those newly registered involved in about three quarters of drug-related deaths, abused amphetamine, an insignificant change compared and a substantial proportion of all drug-related deaths with the previous year. occurred in connection with the abuse of multiple substances, with alcohol, benzodiazepines and other 795. The number of drug abusers in Bosnia and opioids and cocaine often found in addition to heroin. Herzegovina appears to be increasing, especially among Among Europeans aged 15-34, drug overdoses accounted the younger population. It is estimated that there are for 4 per cent of all deaths. Decreases in drug-related 7,500 injecting drug users in the country, which deaths were reported in Germany, Italy and the United represents approximately 0.3 per cent of the population Kingdom. Some increases in drug-related deaths were aged 15-64. Surveys suggest that the average age of reported in Estonia and Finland, owing in both countries injecting drug users is 30 years, about 91 per cent of them to increases in deaths resulting from opioids and in are male, and the vast majority inject heroin. One third of Finland also to increases in deaths associated with surveyed injecting drug users reported needle-sharing amphetamine-type stimulants, tranquillizers and within the previous month. Between 30 per cent and sedatives. 70 per cent of the prison population is estimated to be dependent on drugs. According to local authorities, the 799. Following significant increases in 2011 in HIV case market for synthetic drugs, especially “ecstasy”, is reports and prevalence among injecting drug users in Greece and Romania, a joint enquiry by EMCDDA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control found that most countries reported no change in the rate of newly diagnosed cases or prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users in 2010/11. Bulgaria, 35 If alcohol is excluded, the rate of treatment for cannabis Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Romania CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD SITUATION reported slight increases, however, while other acceding to the other two international drug control countries reported increases in injecting risk behaviour treaties. or low coverage of prevention services among injecting 803. However, the fact remains that nine States in Oceania have yet to become parties to all three of the international drug control treaties, and this continues to be a matter of grave concern for the Board, particularly in the light of increased reports of trafficking in and illicit manufacture of drugs in the region. High prevalence rates for the abuse of cannabis and knowledge of illicit 800. The rates of abuse and illicit manufacture of methamphetamine manufacture in Oceania make it an amphetamine-type stimulants in Oceania are still among area particularly susceptible to organized crime. The the highest in the world. This trend is particularly well Board continues to urge all States concerned, namely the documented in Australia and New Zealand, although methamphetamine abuse is reported to be stable or Cook Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, declining in those countries. While domestic illicit Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu, to accede manufacture in Australia and New Zealand is widespread, without further delay to any of the three international the recent crackdown on precursor chemicals used in drug control treaties to which they are not yet parties. domestic manufacture has caused the price of Those States may easily become used by traffickers who amphetamine-type stimulants to rise, which has in turn want to supply the Australian and New Zealand markets. attracted the attention of foreign traffickers seeking to take advantage of the potential for profits. The result has 2. Regional been that incidents of seizures of methamphetamine have 804. A number of regional conferences have been increased, owing to higher interdiction rates. However, organized in the region, allowing for greater coordination the lack of information on drug control from other and cooperation on issues related to drug control. countries in the region, in particular the Pacific island States, many of which have not ratified any of the 805. The 2012 meeting of the Regional Security international drug control conventions, means that a Committee of the Pacific Islands Forum was held in Fiji comprehensive and effective understanding of the drug in June. The meeting’s discussions focused on transborder trafficking situation is lacking. Nevertheless, research issues, in particular transnational organized crime; indicates that methamphetamines are available and that border management and counter-terrorism; national and there is much abuse by youth, even in fairly remote areas. regional law enforcement challenges; and human security, 801. Cocaine abuse is also increasing, and large seizures human rights and governance issues. have been reported in the region, in particular in 806. Trafficking in precursor chemicals in Oceania Australia. This trend is in keeping with indications from continues to be a major source of concern for officials in previous years that traffickers are targeting Australia and the region. As part of efforts to tackle this problem, New Zealand as markets with high growth potential. The a joint meeting of the Project Cohesion and Project increasing prevalence of “legal highs” poses serious Prism Task Forces was convened in Canberra from 4 to challenges for Australian health, law enforcement and 7 October 2011. Task Force members from Australia, regulatory agencies owing to the large number of China, Germany, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, substances available, confusion about their legal status the Russian Federation and the United States, as well and the complexity related to their manufacture and as representatives of the European Commission, supply; it is also a notable trend in terms of developing INTERPOL and the International Narcotics Control drug abuse patterns. While cannabis is still the illicit drug Board secretariat, attended the meeting. The meeting of choice in the region, evidence suggests that new reviewed operations and activities conducted under the stimulant-type drugs are becoming more popular among auspices of those two Projects, and Task Force representatives gave an overview of the latest trends 802. The Board welcomed the decisions by the observed in their regions with regard to cocaine, heroin Governments of Nauru and Niue to accede to the United and MDMA (“ecstasy”). A number of future actions Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic were agreed, including an information-gathering exercise Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 and urged and improved reporting of seizures related to both Governments to build on that momentum by non-controlled substitutes. It was also agreed to pilot


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