25 years of the WHO essential medicines lists: progress andchallenges Richard Laing, Brenda Waning, Andy Gray, Nathan Ford, Ellen ‘t Hoen The first WHO essential drugs list, published in 1977, was described as a peaceful revolution in international public health.
The list helped to establish the principle that some medicines were more useful than others and that essential medicineswere often inaccessible to many populations. Since then, the essential medicines list (EML) has increased in size; definingan essential medicine has moved from an experience to an evidence-based process, including criteria such as public-health relevance, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. High priced medicines such as antiretrovirals are now included.
Differences exist between the WHO model EML and national EMLs since countries face varying challenges relating tocosts, drug effectiveness, morbidity patterns, and rationality of prescribing. Ensuring equitable access to and rational useof essential medicines has been promoted through WHO’s revised drug strategy. This approach has required anengagement by WHO on issues such as the effect of international trade agreements on access to essential medicines andresearch and development to ensure availability of new essential medicines.
In 1977, the birth of the WHO model list of essential drugs situations; exactly which medicines are regarded as led the organisation to advocate for the principle that some essential remains a national responsibility.”3 medicines were more essential than others, pointing out that In this paper, we review the list’s history, evolution, many medicines in developing countries were not useful, application by countries, controversies, and future whereas others that were did not reach populations at need.
In the past 25 years, 11 revisions of the list have beenpublished and 156 WHO member states have adopted medicines lists.1 The list has been much debated: the The 1975 World Health Assembly5 asked WHO to assist pharmaceutical industry has attacked it for being too member states in selecting and procuring essential restrictive, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) medicines, assuring good quality and reasonable cost have been critical, in particular of the scant attention paid to (panel 1).2,4,5–18 The first list of 205 items (186 medicines) AIDS. Selection criteria for drugs have evolved, including a was published 2 years later.2 At the 1978 Alma Ata change from an experience-based to an evidence-based conference, provision of essential medicines was identified approach. The name has also changed, from essential drugs as one of eight key components of primary health care.6 lists (EDL) to essential medicines lists (EML).
The 1985 Nairobi conference resulted in the development In 1977, essential medicines were “of utmost importance, of WHO’s revised drug strategy, in which the model list basic, indispensable and necessary for the health and needs was recognised as important mainly for public sectors; the of the population”2 and criteria relating to safety, quality, emphasis was moved beyond selection of drugs to their efficacy, and total cost were defined.2 By 2002 the following procurement, distribution, rational use, and quality definition was proposed: “Essential medicines are those that assurance.9 In 1991, membership of the WHO Expert satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. They Committee on the Use of Essential Drugs was balanced by are selected with due regard to public health relevance, including “professionals in essential drugs programmes in evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost- developing countries”4 and by providing comparative cost effectiveness. Essential medicines are intended to be information.4 During this period, many countries and available within the context of functioning health systems at NGOs adopted the essential medicines approach,10 and all times in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage the UN emergency health kit included 55 of the list forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at a price the individual and the community can afford. The When the 1999 expert committee met to revise the implementation of the concept of essential medicines is model list, they expressed concern at the lack of evidence intended to be flexible and adaptable to many different provided to justify revisions and asked that “a summary ofthe appropriate evidence be presented for review”.12Around this time, the effect of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade-related aspects of intellectualproperty rights (TRIPS) agreement on access to medicines Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA was being debated by NGOs, the pharmaceutical industry, (R Laing MD); Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health and governments.13 In a WHO discussion document Sciences, Boston, MA (B Waning MPH); Department of Experimentaland Clinical Pharmacology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of Natal, Congella, South Africa (A Gray MScPharm); We did comprehensive literature searches using Medline and Médecins Sans Frontières, London, UK (N Ford BSc); and MédecinsSans Frontières, Paris, France (E ‘t Hoen EMBASE. Emphasis was placed on articles published from 1975–2002 containing information on the implementation, Correspondence to: Dr Richard Laing, Boston University School of use, effect, and relevance of essential drug lists in developing Public Health, 715 Albany St, T4W, Boston, MA 02118, USA THE LANCET • Vol 361 • May 17, 2003 • For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group.
Panel 1: History of the essential medicines concept 1975: Resolution WHA28.66 called on WHO to assist member states to select and procure essential drugs of good quality and at reasonable cost1977: First list of 205 items published. WHO criticised for attempting to restrict the right of prescribers to prescribe71978: Alma Ata conference identified provision of essential drugs as one of eight key components of primary health care1981: First edition of Managing Drug Supply identified drug selection as an essential management requirement81982: Bangladesh adopted essential drugs list based on the WHO selection and banned 1700 products. World Health Assembly gavelittle support to the essential medicines concept1984: The World Health Assembly resolution known as the Nordic resolution obtained support of all delegations except the USA (WestGermany and Japan abstain)1985: Nairobi conference brought together NGOs, industry, and government representatives, resulting in the WHO Revised Drug Strategy,which put emphasis beyond selection on procurement, distribution, rational use, and quality assurance for the public sector UK introduced a restricted list of medicines1986: Revised Drugs Strategy received unanimous support by the World Health Assembly1991: Review of changes in the essential drug list highlighted growth of list and increase in the number of substitutable drugs. Inclusion ofcomparative cost information suggested. Many countries and NGOs adopted the essential drugs approach1997: Second edition of Managing Drug Supply included detailed descriptions on how to select medicines based on prevalent morbiditypatterns and existing standard treatment guidelines111999: Concern expressed at lack of evidence provided to justify changes. Change from experience to evidence-based submissionsoccupied most of 2000–01 Increasing attention paid to effect of WTO TRIPS agreement. Suggestion made at Seattle WTO meeting that drugs on the WHO essential drugs list be subject to automatic compulsory licensing to ensure universal access2001: The WHO discussion document Updating and Disseminating the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs: the Way Forward attacked byUSA in 35-page memorandum. Final version of the revised procedure adopted by the WHO Executive Board in January, 2002 Doha Declaration stated that the TRIPS agreement should be implemented in a manner “supportive of WTO members’ right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all”2002: Several antiretroviral drugs under patent added to the list. New list published on the internet within days of the meeting;alphabetical and anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classifications and translations in four languages appeared within months18 WHO developed a web-based Essential Medicines Library.
WHO stated at TRIPS Council meeting that “people of a country which does not have the capacity for domestic production of a needed product should be no less protected by [TRIPS safeguards than] people who happen to live in countries capable of producing the product.” published in May, 2001,14 an evidence-based transparent safe, and cost-effective medicines for priority conditions process for revising the list was proposed. This document (selected on the basis of current and estimated future was generally well received by member states, with the public-health relevance and potential for safe and cost- exception of the USA, which attacked every aspect of the effective treatment); and complementary, defined as list in a detailed memorandum.15 Areas of dispute included “medicines for priority diseases which are efficacious, safe the applicability of the list to developed countries and cost and cost-effective but not necessarily affordable, or for considerations. After detailed rebuttals, the final revised which specialized health care facilities or services may be procedure was adopted by the WHO Executive Board in January, 2002.16 In April that year, a meeting of the expert The process for creating and revising the EML committee was held under the new procedures, and several (panel 2) has changed substantially. Selection originally patented antiretrovirals were added to the list.17 largely involved decisions made by members of the expertcommittee, with sometimes little evidence. Before 1991, inclusion of medicines in the list was mainly a result of The structure of the WHO model EML has remained applications from WHO programme staff and the largely unchanged since first published; medicines are divided into two categories: core, defined as efficacious, communication). In 2002, an evidence-based approachwas adopted, including public-health relevance, efficacy, A WHO expert committee, appointed by the WHO Director General, meets to decide which medicines are added or deleted. The members, ranging between seven and ten in number, are selected from WHO expert advisory panels; they are mainly clinical pharmacologists and physicians, although it is apparent today that pharmacists and public health professionals should be included. Most members have been men, although 50% were women in 2002. Despite attempts to represent all WHO geographic regions, the Western Pacific has been under-represented with no member present at four expert committee meetings. The USA is the only country with consistent representation at all of the expert committee meetings. The pharmaceutical industry had observer status in FϩD=number of forms plus dosages. *Multiple salt forms of a drug arecounted as two distinct medicines; combination drugs are not counted as the expert committee meetings until 2001 when the new distinct medicines if the single components appear on the EML.
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antidotes and other substances used in poisonings, antiallergic agents and medicines used in anaphylaxis, antineoplastics and immunosuppressive medicines used inpalliative care, and disinfectants and antiseptics. Other The amodiaquine case illustrates the apparent disconnection therapeutic classes that account for substantial increases between selection decisions made by WHO expert committees include anaesthetics, analgesics, anti-infectives, and and those made by WHO experts creating treatment guidelines. Amodiaquine was deleted from treatment Some medicines have been added and deleted many guidelines by the malaria expert committee in 1990 because times. Amodiaquine was on the original list, deleted in 1979 of safety concerns and for lack of apparent advantage over because “of its similarity to choloroquine”,20 re-added in chloroquine.23 In 1993, however, amodiaquine use was 1982 as a suspension on the complementary list, and recommended in cases in which benefits outweighed risks removed by name in 1987 “since the square symbol [which (WHO 19th Malaria Expert Committee, 1993) and eventually indicates that there are many possible medicines in a reinstated in WHO treatment guidelines in 199624 on the basis therapeutic class that can be used to treat a given condition] of results of a systematic review. Several countries have before chloroquine adequately covers use of this drug”.21 In followed WHO treatment guideline recommendations, which 1995, the expert committee clarified that the square box has spurred many organisations to request that amodiaquine next to chloroquine “is retained solely to accommodate be re-added to the WHO model EML. The 2002 Essential Medicines Expert Committee deferred a decision to addamodiaquine to the model EML pending evidence on safety and efficacy in curative treatments. This decision is contrary to A cross-sectional analysis of 17 national EMLs, shows that a WHO technical consultation on malaria published in April, 68% contain fewer than 300 medicines (range 108–389), 2001, that recommends the use of amodiaquine in areas compared with 309 on the WHO EML in 1999 (table 2).
safety, and cost-effectiveness. However, cost-effectiveness is considered only within WHO therapeutic categories; WHO can establish the most cost-effective antimalarials to add to the list, but cost-effectiveness decisions regarding treating, say, malaria versus HIV/AIDS, are made at country level. Information and data used to make evidence-based decisions are supplied by the Cochrane Collaboration on request. The EML has nearly doubled in size from 205 items (186 medicines) in the first edition to 325 (320) in the 12th edition published in 2002; 195 medicines have been added, 86 removed, and 11 have been reinstated (table 1). Although criticised in the past for revisions, WHO now publishes clear explanations and Over the past 25 years, some therapeutic classes have more than tripled in size, including antimigraine drugs, *Countries were non-randomly chosen based on the following criteria: EML was revised in the past 5 years; EML formatted in same manner as the WHO model EML; medicines were listed by generic names. An attempt was made to obtain EMLs from all WHO geographic regions, with at least two countries from everyregion, and representation from large and small countries. The country EMLs were quantitatively and qualitatively compared with one another and with the 1999 WHO model EML. †Duplicates excluded.
Table 2: Cross-sectional analysis of national EMLs Table 3: Medicines not on country lists but on WHO model list THE LANCET • Vol 361 • May 17, 2003 • For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group.
The ratio of dosage forms to medicines ranged from 1·03 to been an issue of great concern in the EDL process.
Although the 1998 list mentions an ideal treatment Some differences between WHO and national lists are approach for HIV and opportunistic infections, it includes a expected and justifiable (table 3). Local and regional warning that the medicines are “very costly and cannot be morbidity patterns will result in certain medicines, such as provided on a mass scale by the public health services . . . it pentamidine and eflornithine, appearing on few national may only be provided on a limited and selective basis or for EMLs. Likewise, medicines newly added to the WHO list, such as nevirapine and zidovudine, might not be included A new committee is being appointed to revise the list, on national EMLs because of a time lag. Of especial interest including people from major programmes such as maternal are medicines such as quinidine and ephedrine that have and child health, non-communicable diseases, AIDS, been on the WHO list for many years, but have been tuberculosis, and mental health. Nominations have also deleted from most national EMLs because of lack of use, been sought from provincial pharmacy and therapeutics new information, or more cost-effective alternatives. Such committees. There is also commitment to an evidence- medicines probably have no evidence base justifying based approach. Furthermore, the new lists will address inclusion on the WHO list, but will remain until the list is allocating prescriber levels, neglected in the 1998 lists, systematically revised. Similarly, some formulations, such as reserpine injection, are no longer necessary but have never However, country-level EMLs face challenges that the WHO model list does not—they must result in changes in The following examples from South Africa and Eritrea the field, save costs, increase rationality of prescribing, and show how two countries—one large and relatively improve patients’ outcome. Although some baseline data developed, the other small and underdeveloped—have used were collected, follow-up studies are too small to provide the EML as a key component of their national drug policies meaningful conclusions. To align procurement processes with the list is also difficult; around 1600 differentmedicines are still procured by the South African public sector. The increasing use of evidence-based formularies in South Africa’s experience in many ways mirrors global the private sector is, however, promising.30 challenges. In 1994, the country emerged from decades ofisolation and a political system geared to meet the needs of Revising the Eritrean national list of drugs an affluent elite. Among the first new health strategies was The first Eritrean national list of drugs was defined in 1993 the 1996 national drug policy, which was firmly committed and contained 305 medicines, the second (in 1996) to the use of an essential medicines list.26 Although a limited contained 315, and the third (2001) contained 325. All list had been used in the public sector from the mid-1980s, three editions underwent exhaustive review involving most this list had expanded to include some 2600 items. In the health professionals in the country. The WHO model list immediate political pre-transition period, the Department served as the basis for the first edition, which was produced of Pharmacology at the University of Cape Town put by about 30 health professionals. For the second and third forward a list of around 250 active medicines (350 revisions, comments were reviewed at national workshops formulations) organised in four levels of care ranging from attended by more than 100 people, including health professionals and officials of the Ministry of Health, The South African list was developed by a committee professional associations, governmental and international under intense time pressure, much of it from the political organisations, and international consultants. Immediately leadership. The first edition of standard treatment after its publication, the list gained almost universal guidelines and medicines (about 160) for primary health acceptance. The formation of hospital drug and therapeutic care was released within 2 months of publication of the committees and compilation of individual hospital lists of national drug policy. Critics immediately claimed the medicines into a national list assisted this evidence-based committee lacked input from primary-care providers and approach and is recommended for future reviews was pharmacist-dominated, and that the list was overly (Information provided by Embaye Andom, Ministry of focused on disease rather than on syndromes or presenting problems.27 After a review process, membership of thecommittee was expanded. Although the South African Implementation and advocacy: the role of NGOs committees still mainly drew on experience and expert The first director of the WHO Action Programme on opinion, they sought first to develop standard treatment Essential Drugs described the essential medicines concept guidelines, from which necessary medicine lists were as a peaceful revolution in international public health.
extracted. At the end of 1998, a three-volume set of these Others characterised the EML as “a brilliant symbolic lists was released, aimed at primary health care and strategy on the part of WHO for mobilising opinion and resources”.31 However, pharmaceutical companies have Although the lists were widely distributed, implemen- tation was described as patchy and considerable challenges remained,28 including the apparent dislocation between the Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA) called the medical EDL committee and the structures responsible for design of and economic arguments for the EML fallacious and programmes and training material. The committees were, claimed that adopting it “could result in sub-optimal in effect, dissolved once the books were published; medical care and might reduce health standards”.32 The maintenance of the lists was therefore neglected, and pharmaceutical industry was concerned that the EML guidelines produced by national vertical programmes would become a global concept applicable to public and increasingly deviated from the selection made by the EDL private sectors in developing and developed countries, and committee. A prominent example was the guideline for were especially opposed to attempts by developed countries postexposure prophylaxis for rape victims, which in addition to introduce limited medicines lists. In 1982, a spokesman to including antiretrovirals suggested the use of of the US pharmaceutical manufacturers organisation said azithromycin;29 the drug is not available in state facilities and “The industry feels strongly that any efforts by the WHO no tender for its procurement has been issued. HIV has and national governments to implement this action program THE LANCET • Vol 361 • May 17, 2003 • For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group.
should not interfere with existing private sector operations”.
and the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) had The Italian drug industry put it more crudely in response to adopted essential medicine policies.7 The International the Italian senate’s attempts to introduce an EML, stating Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has a “If they want to turn Italy into a third world country, this is comprehensive essential medicines policy35 and Médecins Sans Frontières has an essential medicines guide designed The drug industry’s view that EMLs are only for the to address practical field needs.36 In 1998, a group of NGOs public sector of the poorest nations has not changed much published a guide to encourage NGOs to adopt such in the past 25 years. The current IFPMA paper about policies for their own operations or as a condition for essential medicines repeats that view and says that policies extending restrictive drug policies to industrialised countries In 1981, around 50 NGOs met in Geneva to form Health pose a serious threat to the delivery of effective health care Action International (HAI) whose aims include “the safe, rational and economic use of pharmaceuticals world-wide . .
NGOs have advocated for political support for WHO’s . and full implementation of the WHO Action programme work on essential medicines and for implementation of on essential drugs.” HAI has been a strong advocate for essential medicines policies at the national level (panel 4).
EMLS at the national and international level.
Furthermore, they have a substantial role in the provision of However, advocacy for the availability of essential health care in resource-poor settings, and have used the medicines and removal of non-essential and dangerous EML for the selection and procurement of medicines. The medicines from the market was not sufficient to ensure their importance of this approach is perhaps best illustrated by rational use. In 1982, HAI put forward a draft code of the chaos and risks posed by inappropriate drug donations; practice that addressed the need for international norms on in Lithuania 11 women went blind as a result of a veterinary promotion, distribution, trade, and technology in the drug, donated by a European NGO, being given mistakenly pharmaceutical sector. Though an international code on the pharmaceutical sector was never devised, the World Health By the mid-1980s, international agencies including Assembly adopted a comprehensive pharmaceutical policy NGOs such as Médecins Sans Frontières and Oxfam and within the WHO Medicines Strategy in 1986.38 The strategy professional bodies such as the British Medical Association has the aim of ensuring equitable access to essentialmedicines of acceptable quality, promoting rational use ofmedicines, and implementing national medicine policies. In 2001, the WHO Medicines Strategy was expanded to ● Since the publication of the first WHO EDL, Acción include a mandate for WHO to work on trade-related issues Internacional para la Salud (AIS) Bolivia has translated and affecting the availability of medicines.39 distributed the list throughout Bolivia using a network of 15 volunteer groups. AIS also uses the EML as a basis for consumer education and campaigning to ensure that The AIDS crisis has highlighted the grave inequity in accessto essential medicines and has drawn attention to the essential medicines remain in production and are available potential consequences of WTO agreements on the availability of medicines. Most AIDS medicines are fairly ● In Malaysia, the National Poison Centre educates the public new and are produced in what is effectively a monopoly.
about essential medicines by regularly publishing articles in Once the TRIPS agreement is fully implemented (by 2016 the Malaysian newspaper New Strait Times for least-developed countries) the cost of all new medicines ● In Latvia, the independent drug bulletin Cito! led campaigns worldwide will largely depend on price setting by the patent to stop the sales of inessential medicines such as obsolete antidiarrhoeals and painkillers using the essential In 1996, an Assembly resolution requested WHO to “report on the impact of the work of the World Trade Organization with respect to national drug policies and ● In 1982, the Dutch parliament adopted a decision that essential medicines and make recommendations for development aid could be used only to purchase essential collaboration between WTO and WHO, as appropriate”.40 medicines. This action followed a campaign by WEMOS In 1998, WHO published the first guide containing (Dutch Working Group on Health and Development Issues) recommendations to member states for implementing showing that a Dutch company was exporting anabolic TRIPS while restricting the negative effects of increased steroids to Bangladesh for use by children to stimulate patent protection on drug availability.41 At that time, ● Since 1988, BUKO (German Federal Congress of controversial. The emphasis on public health needs versustrade was seen as a threat in the industrialised world. In Development Action Groups) Pharma-Kampagne has 1998, the Directorate General for Trade of the European published an assessment of the product range of German Commission concluded, referring to “considerable concern pharmaceutical companies to determine whether it among the pharmaceutical industry”, “that no priority addresses the health needs of people in developing should be given to health over intellectual property countries. One of the benchmarks used is the WHO EML.
considerations”.42 However, subsequent resolutions of the The latest study on the marketing of German medicines World Health Assembly have strengthened WHO’s Poor Choices for Poor Countries, published in 1999, shows mandate with respect to trade. In 2001, two resolutions that more than 40% of the medicines sold in developing addressed the need to strengthen policies to increase the countries still do not meet the basic criteria for rational availability of generic medicines and assess the effect of medicines. However, there are also improvements: 15 years TRIPS on access to medicines, local manufacturing ago two-thirds of German medicines were rated irrational capacity, and development of new medicines.43,44 ● Pakistan Network for Rational Drug Use has successfully At the 1999 third ministerial conference of WTO in campaigned for the abolition of sales tax on essential Seattle, several developing countries proposed adding medicines in Pakistan leading to increased affordability medicines on the WHO list to the exceptions to what couldbe patented allowed under TRIPS article 27.3(b).45 A THE LANCET • Vol 361 • May 17, 2003 • For personal use. Only reproduce with permission from The Lancet Publishing Group.
developed treatment guidelines as anindependent activity. Now, they will BNF=British National Formulary. QSM=Quality and Safety of Medicines. WCC=World Council of Chuches. MSH=Management Sciences for Health. MSF=Médecins Sans Frontières. ATC=Anatomical in their guidelines on the model list.
and Therapeutic Chemical classification. DDD=Defined Daily Dose. Intern=international.
For example, on May 8, 2002, WHOannounced a new formula for oral counterproposal led by the European Communities was “to rehydration solution,53 but the 2002 model list that had issue . . . compulsory licenses for drugs appearing on the list been approved the previous month contained the old of essential drugs of the WHO.”46 But because only around formulation; the new formulation was included the 15 of the 306 products on the WHO list were patented in certain countries (at the time drugs such as antiretrovirals Given that the EU and US delegations to the TRIPS were excluded because of cost),47 this proposal would have Council considered WHO’s recent advice54 on how to greatly limited the scope of compulsory licensing. The ensure production and export of generic medicines as Seattle conference collapsed and no conclusion was being outside WHO’s mandate, WHO will have to insist on its duty to advocate for health in future trade debates.
2001 saw the WTO Doha Declaration on TRIPS and This role includes addressing the issue of the lack of Public Health, which acknowledged the right of countries to pharmaceutical research and development for health take measures to protect public health: “. . . while needs in developing countries. Only 1% of medicines reiterating our commitments to the TRIPS Agreement, we developed in the past 25 years have been aimed at these affirm that the Agreement can and should be interpreted diseases, despite the substantial burden that they cause.55 and implemented in a manner supportive of WTO The pharmaceutical industry has engaged in several Members’ right to protect public health and, in particular, public-private partnerships, but they are largely still to promote access to medicines for all.”48 For this statement focused on diseases where there is an economic incentive to be of practical use, the issue of the right of countries to (ie, AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis) and it is too early to produce generic medicines for export must be adequately say whether they will be successful. Where will the new essential medicines for meeting needs specific todeveloping countries come from? Although many people in the world still lack effective The 25-year-old essential medicines concept serves as the access to essential medicines, the work done by WHO basis for the WHO medicines strategy in operation today.50 and its partners has done much to bridge this gap. The It has become a global concept used by governments and original insight that a restricted list of well chosen medicines could meet the needs of most of the world The development of an evidence-based list within WHO remains as valid now as it did in 1977. However, the will be mirrored in countries attempting to implement the fundamental human right to access to these medicines essential medicines concept, which poses major challenges.
remains a challenge and will require further action at the Evidence used by WHO to add or remove a drug might provide some basis for change in country-level decision-making, but in some cases local trials might also be necessary. WHO’s web-based Medicines Library will provide information,51 prices,52 and evidence for decisions, toassist national committees (figure). Training committeemembers in the use of evidence-based medicine resources AcknowledgmentsWork by R Laing and B Waning on the comparative analysis of the essential medicines lists was made possible through support provided to Boston Another area that national committees could find University’s Center for International Health through its subcontract to challenging is cost-effectiveness analysis. International Management Sciences for Health by the Office of Health, US Agency for measures of effectiveness might be locally applicable and International Development, under the Rational PharmaceuticalManagement Plus Project (contract number HRN-A-00-00-00016-00, local costs can be incorporated, but local clinical trials might subcontract RPM-00016-BOS-0003). The WHO EDM programme be needed to measure effectiveness and international prices provided country essential drug lists and financial support for the might have to be used for medicines which are not yet available in the country. Countries might benefit from The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the US Agency for International Development international assistance with these issues, as occurred in None of the funders had any role in this Review.
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___________________________________________________________________________ CLINICAL GUIDELINES for SUBCUTANEOUS INFUSION (HYPODERMOCLYSIS) Clinical Policy Folder Ref No: 16 APPROVED BY: Policy and Guideline Ratification Group (PGRG) Date of Issue: July 2010 Version No: 1.3 Date of review: May 2012 Author: Alison Griffiths. Matron District Nursing NHS South Glouces

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