Scar Care
he first consideration in scar treatment is T management of the open wound are influ- disease characterized by
ential. Providing a healthy environment for the wound Keloid scar
Once the wound is closed, treatment can begin to called keloid scars, and they are very different than prevent too much scarring. Over the past two decades, hypertrophic scars—although they do share some several new therapeutic approaches to scar manage- common features. Keloid scars tend to become much ment have been reported. These new approaches larger than the original wound. They usually persist promise to add substantially to existing therapeutic and reoccur after surgical excision.
approaches. This article attempts to summarize most Anti-inflammatory Agents
Limiting inflammation is paramount to scar reduction.
Scar Information
Inhibition of inflammation using corticosteroid injec- tions is one of the oldest and most established approaches to scar management. The broad effects include inhibition of protein synthesis, including colla- gen and other extracellular matrix proteins. However, the adverse side effects of repeated injections as well Normal scar
as the frequent occurrence of skin depigmentation are theory, this allows faster yet less perfect major drawbacks to this approach. Steroids are not wound healing. However, today most people would effective for treatment of older, asymptomatic scars rather their wounds heal without scarring, even if this Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs particularly when the injury is extensive.
internal scarring in arthritis for decades, Deepak Mistry, BSc,
Hypertrophic scar
open, the anatomic location, and genetically determined healing factors. When more scar of pruritus. They also seem to induce scar forms than is desirable, the scar is considered hyper- trophic. Initial rapid growth followed by gradual fading Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) are and shrinkage characterize hypertrophic scars over powerful anti-inflammatory medications that are several years. This often leads to widened, unattractive commonly used to treat skin inflammation-related ailments. Salicylates (two to five per cent) are com- monly used to control skin inflammation and are rou- trol scar formation. Like elastic garments, the mechanism tinely used in acne treatment products. We have found of action is not known, but hypotheses reported in the topical salicylates to be among the most effective anti-scar literature include induction of scar hypoxia, increased agents. These agents should not be used on open hydration of the epidermis covering the scar and wounds. Topical aspirin should be used under a increased scar temperature. Several reports have shown physician’s guidance because some patients, particularly that hydrogel sheeting is equally effective as silicone asthmatics, may develop hypersensitivity.
and has fewer adverse side effects. Hydrogel sheeting has Anti-histamines are commonly used to control symp- been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toms of scar pruritus. However, they have other important (FDA) as substantially equivalent to silicone for treatment anti-scar properties. Anti-histamines, particularly the H1 of hypertrophic scars. Hydrogels have the added advan- blockers, inhibit the inflammatory response, resulting in tages of use as a drug delivery vehicle as well as having reduced scar formation and increased comfort. Reducing a higher heat capacity for buffering scar temperature.
patient itching and scratching reduces the inflammation and the scar growth rate. Finally, anti-histamines in high Surgical Removal
doses are well known to inhibit collagen synthesis.
The most common indications for surgical removal of scars are the following: large scars that are unlikely to be Inhibitors of Gene Transcription
substantially reduced using medical therapy within a The anti-cancer drugs mitomycin-c and 5-fluorouracil practical timeframe; scars that harbor infection; and scar inhibit population growth of cells by blocking DNA contractures that hamper movement function. Surgical replication. A single application in the first few days revision of hypertrophic or keloid scars is associated after wound closure seems to be effective in scar reduc- with a high recurrence rate. Gentle surgical technique tion under laboratory conditions. Further investigation is critically important because inflamed scar tissue will be needed to determine how this approach can be produces a tremendous scar response to trauma.
Adjunctive measures to reduce inflammation, skin tension and other factors are essential to reduce Acceleration of Scar Degradation
recurrence. Use of lasers and other burning techniques for While steroids and NSAIDs act to limit scar production, other strategies act to induce or accelerate scar degrada- In order to reduce the scar recurrence rate after tion. This approach may be the best for management surgery, effective scar control medications should be of older hypertrophic scars and older keloids. The rate of initiated pre-operatively and continued post-operatively.
tissue breakdown can be increased by both pharmaco- Our experience suggests that most patients with scars large enough to require surgical excision require both systemic COX-2 inhibitors and long-acting H1 anti-hista- Occlusive Dressings
mines to induce scar degradation and reduce recurrence.
After elastic pressure wrap dressings applied to healing Increasingly, our experience suggests that topical burn scars were observed to be effective in the reduction application of NSAIDs to healing wounds will be the most of scar formation, 20–24 mmHg pressure garments practical approach. Trans-epidermal delivery of these have become the mainstay of scar prevention. The agents is enhanced by the application of an occlusive mechanism of action of pressure dressings is unknown because they remain effective even when they lose elasticity and pressure several weeks after daily use.
Measurements show a decrease in wound metabolism Hypertrophic and keloid scarring can be essentially with an increase in collagenase activity. Drawbacks to reduced to inflammation mediated dermal fibrosis, their use are primarily related to their thermal insulation suggesting that there is much insight into effective man- agement that can be gleaned from dermatological and Hydrogel and silicone sheeting have been used to con- rheumatologic conditions of similar pathophysiology.


Microsoft word - lei-3-95-m_port.doc

Fusão e cisão de instituições financeiras e seguradoras Tendo em atenção a proposta do Governador e cumpridas as formalidades previstas na alínea a) do n.º 2 do artigo 48.º do Estatuto Orgânico de Macau; A Assembleia Legislativa decreta, nos termos da alínea h) do n.º 1 do artigo 31.º do mesmo Estatuto, para valer como lei no território de Macau, o seguinte: O disposto na presente

Parks and Recreation Commission East Granby, Connecticut September 6, 2007 1) CALL TO ORDER BY CHAIRMAN A regular meeting of the East Granby Parks & Recreation Commission was held on Thursday, September 6, 2007. Members present when Chairman Kurt Larsen called the meeting to order at 7:32 p.m. were Rosalie McKenney, Jay Brady, Betty Waterman, Patrick Gill and Jim Gothers. C

Copyright © 2012-2014 Medical Theses