Department of Agricultural Research bOTSWANA RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH LONG-TERM INVESTMENT AND CAPACITY Key Trends Since 2000 PATTERNS IN PubLIC AGRICuLTuRAL R&D
• Overall, agricultural research and development (R&D)
spending rose rapidly in Botswana until 2007, after which it fell in response to spiraling inlation levels, which prompted
Agriculture’s contribution to Botswana’s gross domestic
product (GDP) fell dramatically from 44 percent at independence in 1966 to less than 2 percent in 2008,
the government to cut funding to many public-sector
mainly due the increased economic importance of mining,
tourism, manufacturing, and the services industry (World Bank 2010). Despite Botswana’s arid climate and the sector’s declining
• Agricultural R&D capacity levels followed a similar trend.
contribution to formal employment, agriculture remains
The Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) has serious
important as a source of food, income, and employment for a
diiculties attracting and retaining well-qualiied staf
large proportion of the population, particularly in rural areas.
because of its low salary levels compared with parastatals
Given that productivity gains are critical to maintaining and
such as the Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA) and the
enhancing competitiveness of Botswana’s commodities and
National Food Technology Research Centre (NFTRC).
advancing the status of the rural poor, agricultural research and development (R&D) should remain a top priority in national
• Compared with R&D staf in many other countries in the
development planning. For most of the 1990s, agricultural R&D
region, Botswana’s pool of agricultural researchers is
investments in Botswana increased steadily (Beintema,
younger and less qualiied in terms of postgraduate degrees.
Modiakgotla, and Mazhani 2004). This trend continued until 2007,
• The country’s agricultural R&D is almost entirely funded by
albeit more erratically, but in 2008 investments plunged suddenly.
the government. Donor funding plays a negligible role.
That year, the country as a whole spent 46 million Botswanan pulas or 19 million purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars on agricultural research, both in 2005 constant prices (Figure 1, Table 1). Note that, unless otherwise stated, all dollar values quoted
Figure 1—Public agricultural R&D spending adjusted for Figure 2—Public agricultural research staf in full-time inlation, 1981–2008 equivalents, 1981–2008
1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008
1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008
Sources: ASTI–DAR 2009–10; Beintema, Modiakgotla, and Mazhani 2004.
Sources: ASTI–DAR 2009–10 and Beintema, Modiakgotla, and Mazhani 2004.
Notes: The igure in parentheses indicates the number of other government
Notes: The igure in parentheses indicates the number of other government
agencies. For more information on coverage and estimation procedures, see the
agencies. Given the large share of time DAR spends on seed multiplication and
Botswana country page on ASTI’s website at .
range management, its share of FTE scientists has been revised downward to 60 percent. Hence, overall R&D staf numbers in this note difer from those previously published by Beintema, Modiakgotla, and Mazhani (2004). Table 1—Overview of public agricultural R&D spending and research staf levels, 2008 ASTI Website Interaction Total spending Total staing botswanan
More details on institutional developments in
Type of agency Number Shares
agricultural research on Botswana are available
Underlying datasets can be downloaded using
A list of the 3 government, 1 nonproit, and
1 higher education agencies included in this brief is available a
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate the number of agencies in each category.
herein are based on PPP exchange rates, which relect the
purchasing power of currencies more efectively than standard exchange rates because they compare the prices of a broader range of local—as opposed to internationally traded—goods and services.1 Agricultural R&D capacity levels in Botswana also rose
inlation levels in 2008, the Government of Botswana reduced its
considerably during 2000–07, falling somewhat in 2008. The
yearly budget allocations to many public-sector agencies,
country employed 97 full-time equivalent (FTE) researchers in
2008, up from 68 FTEs in 2000 (Figure 2).
Two other government agencies are involved in agricultural
The Department of Agricultural Research (DAR), under the
R&D in Botswana: The National Veterinary Laboratory (NVL) and
Ministry of Agriculture, is Botswana’s principal agricultural
the National Food Technology Research Centre (NFTRC). NVL falls
research agency, accounting for close to 40 percent of the
under the Ministry of Agriculture’s Department of Animal Health
country’s agricultural R&D staf and two-thirds of its agricultural
and Production. In 2008, the laboratory employed 29 FTEs in
R&D expenditures in 2008. DAR is headquartered in Gaborone and
agricultural R&D to focus on livestock disease diagnosis and
comprises three divisions: the Arable Research Division, the
control; applied research designed to maintain the health, welfare,
Animal Production and Range Research Division, and the Support
and production of farm animals; and the preservation of high
Services Division. Research activities encompass crops (including
meat hygiene standards. All of NVL’s R&D activities are conducted
cereal crop improvement, horticulture, oil seeds, grain legumes,
at a laboratory in Gaborone. NFTRC, a parastatal, has the most
crop pest and disease management, and water and soil
modern R&D facilities in the country. Based in Kanye, its mission is
management) and livestock management (including work on
to generate food technologies that enhance economic
animal breeding, dairy, small livestock, feed, and sustainable
diversiication, food security, and quality through sustained R&D
deployment of range resources). In addition, DAR provides
focused on end users. In 2008, 2 FTE researchers were involved in
research support services in seed production and certiication;
agricultural research; the majority of NFTRC’s remaining
soil, plant, and feed analysis; and genetic resources conservation
researchers conducted related—but not strictly agricultural—
(DAR 2009). DAR is also endowed with experiment stations in a
research (including biochemistry, microbiology, and nutrition and
number of locations dispersed across the country. In addition,
dietetics research), and are therefore not included in further
DAR is the country’s National Biosafety Authority, fulilling the
mandate of ensuring the safe use, handling, and transboundary
One nonproit agency was identiied as conducting
distribution of living modiied organisms for sustainable
agricultural R&D in Botswana: Veld Products Research and
Development (VPRD), which specializes in nontimber forest
Although research is DAR’s primary mandate, a large part of
products and is located in Gabane west of Gaborone.3 In 2008, the
the department’s overall spending is allocated to seed production
agency accounted for just 2 percent of the country’s agricultural
and the management of rangelands. It was estimated that DAR’s
R&D expenditures and capacity. VPRD carries out nursery-based
scientists spend 60 percent of their time on research and the
research and ield activities, develops a wide range of veld
balance on other activities. DAR has had diiculties attracting and
products, and investigates suitable management systems for
keeping qualiied research staf and has lost a large number of
natural resources in order to ensure sustainable utilization.
staf to parastatals that are able to ofer higher salaries.2 In order to
The Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA), established in
redress these staf resignations, large-scale recruiting, mostly of
1966, is a parastatal under the Ministry of Agriculture and
junior scientists who are recent university graduates, has occurred
associated with the University of Botswana. Although BCA has
since the turn of the millennium. DAR’s total agricultural
always maintained close links with DAR (and is located adjacent to
researcher capacity doubled from 23 FTEs in 2002 to 46 FTEs in
DAR’s headquarters in Gaborone), the college’s agricultural R&D
2006, but by 2008 numbers had once again fallen to 38 FTEs.
activities only began in 1992. Activities have been expanded
Similarly, DAR’s overall spending decreased by more than
signiicantly since then, and in 2008, BCA accounted for more than
20 percent during 2007–08. As a result of the country’s spiraling
a quarter of Botswana’s total agricultural R&D capacity. BCA’s
Figure 3—Intensity of agricultural research spending and capacity, 1981–2008 ASTI Website Interaction
Detailed deinitions of PPPs, FTEs, and other
methodologies employed by ASTI are available
The data in this note are predominantly
derived from surveys. Some data are from
1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008
secondary sources or were estimated. More information on data coverage is available at
Sources: Calculated by authors from Beintema, Modiakgotla, and Mazhani 2004; FAO 2009; ASTI–DAR 2009–10; and World Bank 2010.
More relevant resources on agricultural R&D
27 FTE agricultural researchers focused on a variety of areas including crops, livestock, forestry, environmental sciences, and
socio-economics. In 2007, research at BCA was consolidated under three streams relating to crops, livestock, and socioeconomics. Drought is the main research theme under crop research, and crop marketing strategies is an important focus of socioeconomic research.
FTE agricultural researchers for every million farmers, which again
Private companies play a limited role in agricultural R&D in
is well above corresponding ratios in most other African countries.
Botswana, but the Centre for Applied Research (CAR) is an important exception. CAR was established in 2000 in response to
INSTITuTIONAL STRuCTuRE AND
the growing demand for high-quality contract-based research.
Unfortunately, lack of available data precludes CAR’s inclusion in the analysis in this note.
The institutional structure of agricultural R&D in Botswana has
In 2008, 32 percent of Botswana’s agricultural researchers
changed little since the turn of the millennium. Some important
were female (ASTI–AWARD 2009), which was well above the
changes have occurred at the ministerial level, however. The
African average (Beintema and Stads 2011). NVL employed
Department of Research, Science, and Technology (DRST) was
comparatively more female researchers (50 percent) than DAR
established in 2004 under the Ministry of Infrastructure, Science,
(27 percent) or BCA (28 percent). Botswana’s 2008 support-staf-
and Technology (MIST). DRTST’s mandate is to coordinate and
per-researcher ratio averaged 1.3, consisting of 0.6 technicians,
provide an enabling environment for science and technology
0.1 administrative support staf, and 0.6 other support staf per
(S&T) in Botswana. A key responsibility has been to deine and
justify the research products and services being funded by the
Total public agricultural R&D spending as a percentage of
ministry. Another has been to create a planning and reporting
agricultural output (AgGDP)—a commonly used indicator of
system for the research institutions to assure the government
comparative agricultural R&D spending across countries—
that institutions will be scientiically and inancially viable
increased rapidly during 1996–2001 but followed a highly volatile
long term (SADC 2008). Nevertheless, despite some high-level
trend thereafter. In 2008, the country invested $4.32 on
consultative meetings and the establishment of MIST, Botswana
agricultural research for every $100 of agricultural output (Figure
still lacks a national S&T policy. Most agricultural R&D agencies
3), which is among the highest shares in Africa and the developing
are organized under separate administrative units with little or
world. In comparison, the 2008 average for Sub-Saharan Africa as
no interagency coordination, and this has led to a duplication of
a whole was 0.61 (Beintema and Stads 2011). The cause for
research eforts and wastage of scarce resources (SADC 2008).
Botswana’s exceptionally high agricultural research intensity has
DAR’s efectiveness is constrained by ineicient and
little to do with high investment levels, but rather relects the
bureaucratic government procedures and systems. Some believe
small size of the country’s agricultural sector and hence its AgGDP.
that DAR would be better able to prioritize and focus its activities
Research intensity ratios are often higher in countries with small
as a parastatal body, with less government intervention, including
populations and high per capita income levels. This is logical when
the ability to set higher salary levels. A recent proposal to remove
you consider that human and capital investments have a ixed
DAR from the Ministry of Agriculture was rejected by the Ministry,
base component, regardless of population size, especially when
and another submission proposing a merger with BCA to eliminate
facilities and services are spread across the country (Pardey,
duplication of activities has yet to move beyond the discussion
Roseboom, and Anderson 1991). The number of agricultural FTE
phase. The recent absorption of NFTRC into the Ministry of
researchers per million farmers increased steadily until 2007, after
Agriculture has also fueled talk of a potential merger between DAR
which the ratio fell somewhat. In 2008, Botswana employed 323
and NFTRC, but no change is foreseeable for the time being.
DEGREE LEVELS AND TRAINING OF
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) also fund training for
NFTRC has taken important steps to build its capacity in
In 2008, 59 percent of agricultural researchers employed in
recent years. Since 2000, a large number of NFTRC scientists have
Botswana were trained to the postgraduate level, with 24 percent
undertaken PhD training (mostly in South Africa). As a result, the
holding PhD degrees and 35 percent holding MSc degrees
number of PhD-qualiied researchers at NFTRC rose from 1 to 10
(Figure 4). Consistent with developing countries around the world,
(individuals, not FTEs) during 2001–09, although the extended
the higher education sector reported a much higher share of
leave of absence required for the training had a negative impact
researchers with PhD degrees (47 percent) compared with DAR
on research in the early 2000s. Most of the researchers that
(17 percent) and the two other government agencies combined
completed foreign training are relatively young and
(12 percent). Despite an overall drop in the share of postgraduate
inexperienced. Attracting experienced staf able to conduct
scientists in Botswana’s agricultural R&D agencies, the absolute
high-level research, monitor younger scientists, and secure future
number of MSc- and PhD-qualiied researchers increased during
R&D funding has proved to be a challenge. NFTRC and BCA often
2001–08. In 2008, 24 FTE researchers held PhD degrees and
compete for qualiied staf. In addition, even though salary levels
34 held MSc degrees compared with 13 and 27 FTE researchers,
are higher at parastatals like NFTRC and BCA compared with DAR,
respectively, in 2001. In addition, the total number of BSc-
they are still too low to attract experienced foreign scientists from
qualiied researchers almost doubled during this period, from
countries like South Africa. In recent years, however, NFTRC has
21 to 40 FTEs. As already established, since the turn of the
successfully recruited nutritionists from Jamaica to address some
millennium, DAR has recruited a large number of young college
graduates, holding only BSc degrees, who receive on-the-job
BCA’s yearly training budget, provided by the Government
training from their more senior and experienced colleagues.
of Botswana, is roughly 5 million pula (in current prices). In 2009,
Until 2007, BCA only ofered BSc-level training, so scientists
about 40 research and technical staf from BCA were undertaking
who wanted to pursue training beyond this level had to go
(mostly PhD) training at foreign universities. The W.K. Kellogg
abroad (mostly to South Africa, but also to Kenya, Zambia,
Foundation has also provided funding toward training for BCA staf.
Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). This ceased
BCA is currently having diiculty recruiting professors, so many
to be the case, at least for MSc training, with the introduction of
positions remain vacant. The situation is expected to improve
6 new MSc programs in agricultural sciences at BCA in 2007.
somewhat as scientists begin to return from training abroad.
Being an upper middle-income country, Botswana is not a
As previously indicated, unlike many other countries in
priority when it comes to donor funding. Unlike many of its
Sub-Saharan Africa, Botswana is not alicted with the challenge of
African counterparts, the Government of Botswana funds the vast
an aging pool of agricultural scientists approaching retirement
majority of postgraduate training for agricultural scientists, and
age. The average age of scientists at DAR and NFTRC is currently
the number of PhD-qualiied scientists at DAR grew from 4 to 11
around 35 and 40 years, respectively. All DAR researchers are paid
during 2001–04 as a result. Nevertheless, with the general decline
according to a civil servant pay scale, which explains the
in government funding to DAR, support for training has also
discrepancy in salaries between DAR and the parastatal agencies
decreased somewhat in recent years. As of 2010, ive of DAR’s
(including BCA), and the diiculty DAR faces in attracting and
researchers were pursuing PhD degrees in plant breeding at
keeping well-qualiied senior staf. To redress this situation, the
foreign universities, and one researcher had recently returned to
government introduced the scarce skill allowance for senior civil
DAR. In addition, since September 2008, the United Kingdom’s
servants in May 2008, ofering specialized scientists with unique
Department for International Development (DFID) has provided
skills salaries of up to 40 percent above their scale. As of September
funding for 8 DAR researchers to pursue MSc training through the
2010, however, this allowance was suspended until further notice
Southern African Development Community (SADC). SADC and the
due to implementation issues. Only MSc-qualiied scientists were eligible for the allowance at DAR, and it acted as a disincentive for many staf members given the seemingly arbitrary deinition of
Figure 4—Degree level of researchers by institutional
“scarce skills,” which many scientists could not claim to possess.
category, 2001 and 2008
Capacity will continue to remain a challenge at DAR in the coming years without appropriate restructuring to enable the Department
to compete for staf alongside the country’s parastatal agencies. INVESTMENT TRENDS Cost Categories
The allocation of research budgets across salaries, operating
costs, and capital investments afects the eiciency of agricultural
R&D, so detailed cost category data were collected from the
government agencies as part of this study. During 2001–08,
salaries at DAR accounted for 49 percent of total expenditures,
operating costs for 45 percent, and capital investments for 6 percent (Figure 5). The overall decline in spending during 2007–08 explains the increase in the share of salaries. Around the turn
Note: The igure in parentheses indicates the total number of agencies.
of the millennium, DAR invested considerably in its infrastructure, including oices, housing, farmhouses, and equipment, largely
Figure 5— DAR’s cost category shares, 2001–08 Figure 6—Research focus by major commodity area, 2008
Notes: The igure in parentheses indicates the total number of agencies. BCA was
excluded from the sample because of data unavailability.
because of the construction of three regional stations. The overall
and operating costs. BCA’s overall research budget has increased
share of capital investments also increased during 2007–08.
in recent years now that more PhD-qualiied scientists are returning to Botswana. Funding Sources RESEARCH ALLOCATION
Agricultural R&D funding in Botswana is primarily inanced by the national government. During 2005–08, the government
The allocation of resources across various lines of research is a
accounted for 97 percent of DAR’s total funding, with the private
signiicant policy decision, so detailed survey information was
sector (including producers) and foreign donors contributing the
collected on the number of FTE researchers working in speciic
remaining 3 percent. This situation sharply contrasts with other
commodity and thematic areas. Livestock dominates Botswana’s
African countries that are highly dependent on donor funding for
agricultural sector, accounting for 80 percent of agricultural
agricultural R&D, as well as and DAR’s situation in the 1980s, when
output (SADC 2008). It is therefore not surprising that livestock
donor contributions represented one-third of the Department’s
research also dominates, forming the focus of 56 percent of the
total funding (Beintema, Modiakgotla, and Mazhani 2004). As
country’s agricultural researchers in 2008 (Figure 6). That year crop
previously mentioned, as an upper middle-income country,
research accounted for 41 percent of all FTE researchers, while the
Botswana is not a priority country many foreign donors. A small
remaining researchers focused on natural resources, forestry,
component of DAR’s program costs, however, is funded by donors
postharvest, and socioeconomic research.
such as the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Sorghum is the most researched crop in Botswana, accounting
SADC has inanced some training in recent years. DAR also raises a
for 36 percent of the country’s crop research (Table 2). Fruits and
small amount of funding internally through the sale of products
vegetables each accounted for 14 percent of all crop research, and
like vegetables, fruit, milk, and cattle.
groundnuts accounted for 13 percent. Other important crops
More than 90 percent of NFTRC’s budget is also funded by the
include maize, millet, and wheat. The country’s livestock
government. An increasing share of the Centre’s funding, however,
researchers concentrated primarily on beef, dairy, and swine.
is generated internally through commercialization trials for the private sector. Donor funding plays a limited role. Some donors,
Table 2—Research focus by major crop, 2008
including Secure the Future, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and IAEA, have provided
funding for speciic projects in recent years. During 2003–09,
VPRD received the bulk of its funding through England’s Kew
Gardens as part of a Kalahari plants, livelihoods, and community conservation project. The completion of the project in 2009 led to
a severe drop in overall funding, resulting in the loss of staf jobs.
In addition, Unilever South Africa inanced a small two-year R&D
program on the indigenous hoodia plant.
Research at BCA is funded by the national government and
donor organizations. In 2008, the college received a total of
37.8 million (current) pula, 26.7 million of which was funded by
the government and the remainder of which was funded through
collaborative projects with the European Union and foreign
(mainly British and Danish) universities. Just 1 million pula of the government budget was speciically allocated to research
Source: ASTI–DAR 2009–10. Notes: The igure in parentheses indicates the total number of agencies. BCA was
programs; the bulk of the funding supported salaries, training,
excluded from the sample because of data unavailability. CONCLuSION
Botswana’s agricultural R&D capacity and investments rose rapidly
Financial data are also available in current local currencies or constant 2005 U.S.
dollars via ASTI’s Data Tool, available at www.asti.cgiar.org/data.
during 1995–2007. However, inlationary pressures and a
considerable exodus of R&D staf from DAR, the country’s
A parastatal is an institution or organization in which the state holds a share; it is
an independent company limited by guarantee.
principal public agricultural R&D agency, caused overall R&D
3 The term “veld” refers to large tracts of open rural land in southern Africa and, in
investments and capacity levels to fall in 2008. That year, the
particular, to certain latter areas or districts covered in grass or low scrub.
country as a whole employed 97 FTE research staf and spent 46 million pula or 19 million dollars on agricultural R&D (both in 2005
PPP prices). Botswana has one of the highest agricultural R&D
ASTI–AWARD (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators and African
intensity ratios in Africa and the developing world, but this is not
Women in Agricultural Research and Development). 2009. Gender-
uncommon for a country with a small population and a relatively
disaggregated capacity indicators in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007/08.
Unpublished surveys. Washington, D.C. and Nairobi: International Food
Notwithstanding important government-funded training
Policy Research Institute and Consultative Group on International
initiatives for DAR scientists leading to an overall increase in
Agricultural Research Gender and Diversity Program.
the number of PhD-qualiied scientists since the turn of the
ASTI–DAR (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators and Department of
millennium, the Department has serious diiculties attracting
Agricultural Research). 2009–10. Agricultural science and technology indicators survey. Unpublished surveys. Washington, D.C. and Gaborone.
and retaining well-qualiied staf because of its comparatively low government salaries. Many scientists have left DAR in favor of
Beintema, N. M., E. Modiakgotla, and L. M. Mazhani. 2004. Botswana. ASTI
Country Brief No. 19. Washington, DC, and Gaborone: International
better-paying positions at parastatals, and DAR has been forced
Food Policy Research Institute and Department of Agricultural Research.
to ill most of these vacancies with recent university graduates.
Beintema, N. M. and G. J. Stads. 2011. African agricultural R&D: Progress for
Advanced training for this relatively inexperienced pool of
some, challenges for many. Food Policy Report. Washington, D.C.:
scientists should be a high priority in the coming years, as a critical
International Food Policy Research Institute.
mass of highly qualiied research staf is crucial to producing
DAR (Department of Agricultural Research). 2009. DAR mandate and mission.
high-level research and to securing future R&D funding, whether
<http://www.dar.gov.bw/mandate.html> (accessed November 2010).
through regional competitive funds or other channels.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2009.
Parastatals, including BCA and NFTRC, are able to ofer
FAOSTAT database. <http://faostat.fao.org/site/452/default.aspx>
much higher salaries compared with DAR and therefore more
easily attract well-qualiied staf. The government will have to
Pardey, P. G., J. Roseboom, and J. R. Anderson, eds. 1991. Agricultural
reconsider measures to increase DAR’s competitiveness and
research policy: International quantitative perspectives. Cambridge
to clearly identify its long-term R&D priorities and translate
them into relevant, focused, and coherent R&D programs.
SADC (Southern Africa Development Community). 2008. Implementation
Though talks of merging DAR with BCA or NFTRC have been
and coordination of agricultural research and training (ICART) in the
ongoing, no irm plans have been made. For the time being, the
SADC region: Botswana. Gaborone: Food, Agriculture, and Natural
Department will continue to face these fundamental challenges.
World Bank. 2010. World development indicators (WDI) and Global
development inance (GDF). <http://databank.worldbank.org/ddp/home.do?Step=2&id=4&hActiveDimensionId=WDI_Series> (accessed November 10, 2010). IFPRI-ROME
Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITuTE
c/o ESA, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
2033 K Street, NW • Washington, DC 20006-1002 USA
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla • 00153 Rome, Italy
Tel: +1-202-862-5600 • Skype: ifprihomeoffice
Telephone: +39-06-570-53192 / 56334 • Skype: ifpriromeoffice
Fax: +1-202-467-4439 • Email: [email protected]
Fax: +39-06-570-55522 • Email: [email protected]www.ifpri.org www.asti.cgiar.org
IFPRI is one of 15 agricultural research centers that receive their principal funding from governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations, most of which are members of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (www.cgiar.org).
DAR is Botswana’s principal agricultural R&D agency. It was established in the late 1960s and falls under the administrative coordination of the country’s Ministry of Agriculture. The institute holds a broad mandate covering crop and livestock management research. In addition, it provides research support services in seed production and certiication; soil, plant, and feed analysis; and genetic resources conservation. To learn more about DAR visit http://www.dar.gov.bw.
The Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative compiles, analyzes, and publishes data on institutional developments, investments, and human resources in agricultural R&D in low- and middle-income countries. The ASTI initiative is managed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and involves collaborative alliances with many national and regional R&D agencies, as well as international institutions. The initiative, which is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation with additional support from IFPRI, is widely recognized as the most authoritative source of information on the support for and structure of agricultural R&D worldwide. To learn more about the ASTI initiative visit www.asti.cgiar.org.
The authors thank the agricultural research agencies that participated in the ASTI–DAR survey; without their commitment this country note would not have been possible. The authors also thank Michael Rahija for his research assistance, and Nienke Beintema, Elenimo Khonga, Seja Maphanyane, and Pharoah Mosupi who provided inputs and comments on an early draft of this note. ASTI gratefully acknowledges the generous support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Copyright 2011 International Food Policy Research Institute and Department of Agricultural Research. Sections of this report may be reproduced without the express permission of, but acknowledgement to, IFPRI and DAR. For permission to republish, contact [email protected]
This country note has been prepared as an output for the ASTI initiative and has not been peer reviewed. Any opinions stated herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily relect the policies or opinions of IFPRI and DAR.
Saponins from Allium minutiﬂorum with antifungal activityElisa Barile a, Giuliano Bonanomi b, Vincenzo Antignani b, Behzad Zolfaghari c,S. Ebrahim Sajjadi c, Felice Scala b, Virginia Lanzotti a,*a Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari, Ambientali e Microbiologiche, Universita` del Molise, Via F. De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italyb Dipartimento di Arboricoltura, Botanica e
Please note: All files marked with a copyright notice are subject to normal copyright restrictions. These files may, however, be downloaded for personal use. Electronically distributed texts may easily be corrupted, deliberately or by technical causes. When you base other works on such texts, double-check with a printed source if possible. Envar sin egen professor (2) Ett intermesso