Evidence paper artwork-c

The Research Evidence Base for Homeopathy
Systematic reviews of randomised controlled (RCTs) of homeopathy
• Four of five comprehensive reviews of RCTs in homeopathy have reached positive
conclusions.1,2,3,4 Based on a smaller selection of trials, a fifth review came to a negativeconclusion.5 • Positive conclusions have been reported in six of 14 reviews of RCTs in specific medical • conditions (the other eight are largely inconclusive):• childhood diarrhoea6• influenza treatment 7• post-operative ileus8• rheumatic diseases9• seasonal allergic rhinitis.10,11 RCTs of homeopathy – the original peer-reviewed research literature
• Up to the end of 2005, 119 RCTs have been published: 57 positive; 6 negative; 56 not
statistically conclusive. In addition to the above five conditions, there is positive evidence fromtwo or more RCTs in each of the following five: • fibromyalgia12,13• migraine14,15• osteoarthritis16,17• otitis media in children18,19• vertigo.20,21 • There is evidence from single RCTs (not refuted by others) in favour of homeopathy for a number of other conditions: allergic asthma,22 ankle sprain,23 attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder,24 bronchitis,25 chronic fatigue syndrome,26 premenstrual syndrome.27 Cost effectiveness of homeopathy
Integration of homeopathy with conventional treatment is associated with better clinical outcomes
for similar or lower costs.28,29,30
Clinical observational studies
• 70.7% of 6,544 follow-up patients, treated at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital for a wide range of
chronic medical complaints, reported positive health changes.31 • Many patients attending the Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital were able to reduce or stop conventional medication following homeopathic treatment.32 Basic Science
• Laboratory research has obtained evidence that water may retain information about
homeopathically-prepared solutes.33,34,35 • Further laboratory studies have shown that homeopathic dilutions can exert biological References
Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, ter Riet G (1991). Clinical trials of 20 Weiser M, Strösser W, Klein P (1998). Homeopathic vs.
homeopathy. British Medical Journal, 302: 316–23.
conventional treatment of vertigo: a randomized double-blindcontrolled clinical study. Archives of Otolaryngology – Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al (1997). Are the clinical Head and Neck Surgery, 124: 879–85.
effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of
placebo-controlled trials. Lancet, 350: 834–43.
21 Issing W, Klein P, Weiser M (2005). The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in Linde K, Scholz M, Ramirez G, et al (1999). Impact of study an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled quality on outcome in placebo controlled trials of homeopathy.
clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 52: 631–6.
11: 155–160.
Cucherat M, Haugh MC, Gooch M, Boissel JP (2000). Evidence 22 Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, et al (1994). Is evidence for of clinical efficacy of homeopathy – A meta-analysis of clinical homeopathy reproducible? Lancet, 344: 1601–6.
trials. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 56: 27–33.
23 Zell J, Connert WD, Mau J, Feuerstake G (1988). Treatment of Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, et al (2005). Are the acute sprains of the ankle. Controlled double-blind trial to test clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative the effectiveness of a homeopathic ointment. Fortschritte der study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy.
Medizin, 106: 96–100.
Lancet, 366: 726–32.
24 Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, et al (2005). Homeopathic Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, Crothers D (2003).
treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial.
metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials.
European Journal of Pediatrics, 164: 758–67.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 22: 229–34.
25 Diefenbach M, Schilken J, Steiner G, Becker HJ (1997).
Vickers A, Smith C (2004). Homoeopathic Oscillococcinum for Homeopathic therapy in respiratory tract diseases. Evaluation of preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like syndromes a clinical study in 258 patients. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin, (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library. Chichester, UK: 73: 308–14.
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. CD001957.
26 Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, et al (2004).
Barnes J, Resch K-L, Ernst E (1997). Homeopathy for A randomized, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of postoperative ileus? A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome.
Gastroenterology, 25: 628–33.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56: 189–97.
Jonas WB, Linde K, Ramirez G (2000). Homeopathy and 27 Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, et al (2001). Effects of rheumatic disease – Complementary and Alternative Therapies homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: for Rheumatic Diseases II. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North a pilot study. British Homeopathic Journal, 90: 148–53.
America, 26: 117–23.
28 Witt C, Keil T, Selim D, et al (2005). Outcome and costs of 10 Wiesenauer M, Lüdtke R (1996). A meta-analysis of the homeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a homeopathic treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca.
comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders.
Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13: 79–86.
Naturheilkunde, 3: 230–6.
29 Witt CM, Lüdtke R, Baur R, Willich SN (2005). Homeopathic 11 Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellyn-Jones RH, et al (2000).
medical practice: long-term results of a cohort study with Randomised controlled trials of homoeopathy versus placebo 3,981 patients. BMC Public Health, 5: 115.
in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series.
British Medical Journal, 321: 471–6.
30 Trichard M, Chaufferin G Nicoloyannis N (2005).
Pharmacoeconomic comparison between homeopathic and 12 Fisher P (1986). An experimental double-blind clinical trial antibiotic treatment strategies in recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis method in homoeopathy. Use of a limited range of remedies to in children. Homeopathy, 94: 3–9.
treat fibrositis. British Homeopathic Journal, 75: 142–7.
31 Spence D, Thompson E, Barron S (2005). Homeopathic 13 Bell I, Lewis D, Brooks A, et al (2004). Improved clinical status treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year university hospital based in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic outpatient observational study. Journal of Alternative and remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology, 43: 577–82.
Complementary Medicine, 5: 793–8.
14 Brigo B, Serpelloni G (1991). Homoeopathic treatment of 32 Sharples F, van Haselen R, Fisher P (2003). NHS patients’ migraines: a randomized double-blind study of sixty cases perspective on complementary medicine. Complementary (homoeopathic remedy versus placebo). Berlin Journal on Therapies in Medicine, 11: 243–8.
Research in Homeopathy, 1: 98–106.
33 Rey L (2003). Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions 15 Straumsheim P, Borchgrevink C, Mowinckel P, et al (2000).
of lithium chloride and sodium chloride, Physica (A), Homeopathic treatment of migraine: a double blind, placebo 323: 67–74.
controlled trial of 68 patients. British Homeopathic Journal,
89: 4–7.
34 Bell IR, Lewis DA, Brooks AJ, et al (2003). Gas discharge visualisation evaluation of ultramolecular doses of homeopathic 16 Shealy CN, Thomlinson RP, Cox RH, Borgmeyer RN (1998).
medicines under blinded, controlled conditions. Journal of Osteoarthritic pain: a comparison of homeopathy and Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 9: 25–38.
acetaminophen. American Journal of Pain Management,
8: 89–91.
35 Elia V, Niccoli M (1999). Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Annals of the New York Academy of 17 van Haselen RA, Fisher PAG (2000). A randomized controlled Sciences, 879: 241–8.
trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in
osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology, 39: 714–9.
36 Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, et al (1994). Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicol- 18 Harrison H, Fixsen A, Vickers A (1999). A randomized ogy. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 13: 481–92.
comparison of homoeopathic and standard care for thetreatment of glue ear in children. Complementary Therapies in 37 Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, et al (2004). Histamine dilutions Medicine, 7: 132–5.
modulate basophil activation. Inflammation Research, 53: 181–8.
19 Jacobs J, Springer D, Crothers D (2001). Homeopathic treatment 38 Zausner C, Lassnig H, Endler PC, et al (2002). Influence of a of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized homoeopathically prepared thyroxine dilution on the placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, metamorphosis of highland frogs – results of a multicenter 20: 177–83.
controlled trial. Perfusion (Nürnberg), 17: 268–76.

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